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    HISTORY OF KAZAKH LITERATURE

    STATE PROGRAM

    REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

    "CULTURAL HERITAGE"

     

    SECTION

    "LITERARY STUDIES, FOLKLORE STUDIES

    AND HISTORY OF ART"

     

    Explanatory note to the series

    «HISTORY OF KAZAKH LITERATURE» in 10 volumes

    Researchers of the national literary studies continue activities on eliminating ideological crisis that occurred on the edge of 80th-90th of XXth century. This activity includes two directions: elimination of ideologization and class approaches to the literature and simultaneously opposition to another extreme point: nihilistic attitude towards domestic classics of XIX and XX centuries. Gradual elimination of theoretic crisis that occurred in the field of humanitarian science for a certain period, speaks about returning to the historical point of view to the literary process, aspiration to reconsider and restore the history of Kazakh literature on scientific basis beginning from ancient period till contemporary time.

    Researchers of the M.O. Auezov Institute of literature and art began compiling new 10 volume work "History of Kazakh literature" in the frame of State Program "Cultural heritage". Fundamental research work considering history of domestic literature from position of the present period is very important for the universities and schools because it is impossible to develop qualitative text books and training manuals for young generation without this information.

    Activity on creating new history of literature is based on the need to consider not only historical principle but mainly the regularities of the development of the world literature and internal development of national artistic concept and culture. It assumes not just following civil history or political history of the state, although nobody could deny that spiritual life of the society is closely linked with historical and social-political conditions of the country.

    New history of literature in 10 volumes will be divided into periods in a new way, based on evolution of artistic word according to esthetics regulations. It means that Kazakh literature in its artistic development has passed three big phases: 1) literature before Abay (ancient and medieval periods), literature of Abay epoch (new period), 3) post-Abay literature (newest period)

     

    1 volume - history of Kazakh folklore,

    2 volume - history of ancient literature

    3 том - history of Kazakh literature during medieval time and period of Kazakh khanate.

    4 том - history of Kazakh literature of the I half of XIX century,

    5 том - history of Kazakh literature of the II half of XIX century,

    6 том - history of Kazakh literature of the beginning of ХХ century,

    7 том - history of Kazakh literature of 20-30th of ХХ century,

    8 том - history of Kazakh literature of 40-60th of ХХ century,

    9 том - history of Kazakh literature of 60-80th of ХХ century,

    10 том - history of Kazakh literature of independence period.

    At present period the following volumes have been prepared and published.

     

    1 volume - history of Kazakh folklore

    The work proposed for the readers' attention is the first volume of «History of Kazakh literature» written by the researchers of M.O.Auezov Institute of literature and art in 10 volumes. It is devoted to folklore. It includes first attempt to study folklore in diachronic aspect, investigate history of national folklore beginning from ancient period to present time. Unlike previous works in which folklore is considered only as oral literature, in this monograph folklore is considered widely namely as peoples culture in general and is studied in complex with traditions, rituals and beliefs of ancient ancestors of Kazakh people and Kazakh ethnos. Such approach has determined the structure and objective of the book and showed the genesis and evolution of folklore genres from the most early, syncretic forms to complete artistic forms, revealed ancient bases of classic plots and motives, observe their transformation into artistic works, images and poetic methods. This was impossible to do in the previous works because in them folklore was studied in synchronic and static condition.

    According to the tasks and objectives of the research, folklore issues have been considered as a cultural process developing during all periods, beginning with primitive society till present days accompanying humans during the whole periods of history. Such understanding meant study of Kazakh folklore on the background of human spiritual development using historical-typological, comparative methods considering historical-phase and civilization-national regulations. All this assumed to provide the book that consists of three main parts, introduction article that determines not only its aims and objectives but also the status and theoretic bases of Kazakh folklore. It includes also specific features of Kazakh folklore and its conceptual understanding such as: a) philosophy and culture of ancient people, b) part of human life, c) literary art and artistic heritage.

    Each of three parts has an article that highlights general picture of spiritual culture of the appropriate period and description of folklore process during each epoch. First part is devoted to syncretic culture of ancient period and includes three chapters: 1) folklore related to human working activities. Here the ancient hunting, livestock and farming rituals and various folklore texts accompanying them are considered. 2) Ritual folklore divided into calendar, family and magic folklore. Calendar folklore includes celebration of New year «Nauryz» and songs about it, spring holiday devoted to first milking of mares («Kymyzmurindik») and songs about it, songs «Zharapazan» performed during Ramadan month. As the content of «Zharapazan» is based on pre-Islam folklore, they are referred to the ancient ritual folklore. Family ritual folklore is classified into wedding rituals and songs, funeral rituals and songs, children folklore. Magic folklore is first outlined as a separate type and it includes arbau (spell), zhalbarinu (incantation, supplication), algis (blessing), kargis (curse), ant (oath), badik (condemn), baksi sarini (shaman's song). 3) Archaic folklore including such ancient genres as myths, khikaya (bilichka), ethiologic tale, fairy tale, archaic epos and mystery that already have artistic features.

    The object of the second part of the book is folklore of medieval epoch including long period from the formation of early feudal states till collapse of Kazakh khanate. As folklore texts recorded during that period are missing, folklore patterns fixed on rocks and in some literary works are considered as main sources that provide opportunity to guess about folklore texts that existed during that period. These are ancient Turkic writings in honor of Kultegin and Bilge-kagan, anonymous works «Oguz-name», «Kumanikus code» and «Kitabi dedem Korkud», author compositions «Kissas-ul-anbija» by Rabguzi and others.

    Those mentioned written monuments include folklore motives and plots (sometimes genres), folklore traditions, characters actions resembling actions of mythic ancestors, epic bogatyrs, tale heroes or historical figures. For example in ancient Turkic texts written on rocks traces of ancient myth about origin of the sky and earth can be seen, Turks ancestors, spirit and motives of heroic epos, however «Oguz-name» and «Kitabi dedem Korkut» are the patterns of medieval book epos with all features typical for the epic genre, «Kumaniks code» includes lots of sayings, mysteries and quatrains.

    During Kazakh khanate many ancient genres and plots have gained new impulse and have transformed into real artistic forms. Formation of the whole classical folklore system took place, especially bogatyr and romantic epos have been blossoming, based on ancient plots the tales about animals, bogatyr eposes, legends, sayings, historical epos have appeared. During this period the process of historical, biographical and genealogical cyclization of epos and other genres took place and therefore most folklore works reflect life of people who lived in Kazakh khanate.

    Third part of the book includes condition of folklore during new and newest periods, it shows how traditional genres have modified and new genre forms appeared that were caused by historical-cultural and social-political events that took place in XVIII, XIX, XX centuries. During this period ancient genres continue their development, new forms have developed from old forms, new genres, plots and motives have been developing. So in XVIII-XIX centuries many genres have gained all features that have reached us before first half of XX century as classical folklore and valuable heritage. Particular, we can mention novelistic and satirical tales, lyrical, historical and lyric-epic (ballade) songs. Aitys, dastan and historical epos have especially strongly developed. It should be mentioned that during new period lyrical genres are prevailing, historical epos and historical songs that tell about struggle of Kazakh people against Jungar invaders and Russian colonists became important, new genre has appeared that is conditionally determined by lyro-epic (ballade) songs with combination of archaic and new things but without mythologization.

    In XX century work songs and stories non traditional for Kazakh folklore have appeared, various songs and stories about peoples liberation uprising of 1916, new songs, mysteries, sayings and proverbs. All of them actively existed till first half of XX century and only some patterns of minor didactic genre are used in usual life of contemporary people. At present stage genre of anecdote begins its formation caused by intensive urbanization and traditional folklore is used in professional art as a source. It means that folklore became classical heritage and part of contemporary artistic culture.

    2 volume - history of ancient literature

    Ten volume "Hіstory of Kazakh lіterature" іs a collectіve work performed by the staff of the M.O. Auezov Іnstіtute of lіterature and art, Mіnіstry of educatіon and scіence, Republіc of Kazakhstan wіth partіcіpatіon of the lіterature studіes specіalіsts workіng at the unіversіtіes of Kazakhstan.

    The volume іncludes systematіzatіon of the huge part of the hіstory of ancіent and medіeval Kazakh lіterature. Іt іncludes materіal begіnnіng from wrіtten sources of spіrіtual culture of pre-Turkіc perіod and fіrst wrіtten works of common Turkіc character (VІІ-VІІІ) tіll the lіterature of perіod of Kazakh state. For the fіrst tіme many works have been іntroduced іnto scіentіfіc cіrculatіon. The sources wrіtten not only іn Turkіc languages, but also іn Russіan, Arab, Persіan, Chіnese, Turkіsh, Mongolіan and West European languages related to the ancіent and medіeval Kazakh lіterature and culture.

    The volume іncludes foreword that contaіns scіentіfіc-methodologіcal bases of thіs bіg many volume research work and іntroductіon artіcle to the second volume where chronologіcal frames of the hіstory of ancіent and medіeval Kazakh lіterature, іts dіvіsіon іnto perіods.

    For the fіrst tіme the volume hіghlіghted lіterary motіves of Sak-Hunn perіod, Turkіc motіves іn ancіent Chіnese sources, common Turkіc spіrіtual-cultural monuments of Turan cіvіlіzatіon, lіterary patterns of Turkіc-Mongol communіty, lіterature of Turkіc perіod has been analyzed (VІІ-ІX), Oguz-Kіpchak (ІX-XІ) perіod, Karakhanіd perіod (XІ-XІІ c.) and lіterature of Golden Horde and Kіpchak lіterature of Egypt (XІІІ-XV).

    Monograph sectіons hіghlіght creatіve work of such promіnent representatіves of medіeval lіterature such as Zhusup Balasagun, Makhmut Kashgarі, Akhmet Yassauі, Suleіmen Bakіrganі, Akhmet Іugnekі, Khorezmі, Rabguzі, Kutba, Seіfa Sarayі and creatіve work of the earlіer unknown poets such as Husama Katіba, Kul Galі, Durbek, Alі. For the fіrst tіme lіterary creatіve work of the great phіlosopher of the Orіent Al-Farabі has been presented.

    So for the fіrst tіme the volume hіghlіghts іn wіde range and іn hіstorіcal consequence all sіgnіfіcant stages of development of the ancіent and medіeval wrіtten Kazakh lіterature.

    3 volume - history of Kazakh literature during medieval time and period of Kazakh khanate

     Ten volume edition of "History of Kazakh literature" is a collective work of the staff of M.O.Auezov Institute of literature and art, Ministry of education and science of Kazakhstan, performed with participation of specialists in the field of  literary studies of our country.

    Third volume includes systematization of the big section of  history of Kazakh literature of XIII-XVIII centuries. It covers materials including patterns of author poetry and written literature during Golden Horde epoch and akyns and zhyrau poetry during the period of Kazakh khanate.

    Authorship, relative  sustainability of the text, concrete content, availability of addressee were typical for individual creative activity. Due to creative combination of the previous folklore poetry with a newly beginning one, the individual poetry has reflected events in Desht-I- Kypchak during Golden Horde State, has created literary patterns of historical persons and fictitious personages. Main idea of the authors poetry was the idea of conserving unity of Desht-i-Kypchak  people and protection of their independence.

    Golden Horde epoch was characterized with a rapid development of written literature. Most significant works have been created mainly in court medium by talented poets who as a rule, have been involved in public service or served to the rulers and they often devoted their works to  the rulers. From the total number of works created during the Golden Horde epoch such masterpieces of written literature  can be outlined as  classical pattern of scientific and research and partially fiction of the period when Kypchaks (Kumans, Polovtsy) were dominating on the huge territory from Djungar Gates to Danube river- "Kumanikus code" (XIX c.), Khorezmi'z lyric poem "Mukhabbat-name", a work with a new form and content in the literature of Golden Horde epoch, dastan "Gulistan bit-turki" written by Saif Sarai, Kutba's dastan "Khosrou and Shirin" written as a nazira and singing real love and ideal ruler, Durbek's dastan "Zhusup-Zilykha", Nasreddin Rabguzi's book "Kissa sul-anbiya" that is devoted to the description of the life and adventures of the prophets who were before Mohamed, description of Mohamed's life and Moslem khalifs.

     Original government system and life of Kazakh khanate has set akyn's and zhyrau's poetry, creative work of sheshens-biys as a priority of spiritual life of the society. Main themes of zhyrau poetry in XV-XVIII centuries included  the issues of consolidation and unity of tribes that have composed Kazakh khanate, strengthening of the State and its army. Akyns and zhyrau in their poetic monologues-tolgau have considered ethic and moral issues, issues of honor and dignity, issues of life and death, changeability and transitory feature of the world. The outstanding representatives of zhyrau poetry of XV-XVIII centuries were Assan Kaigy zhyrau (XV c.), Sypyra zhyrau (XV c.), Shalkiiz (Shalgez) zhyrau (1465-1560), Kaztugan zhyrau (XV c.), Dospambet zhurau (XV c.), Zhiembet zhyrau (XVII c.), Margaska zhyrau (XVII c.), Aktamberdi zhyrau (1675-1768), Umbetei zhyrau (1697-1786), Bukhar zhyrau (1698-1778), akyn Tatikara (1705-1780).

    During epoch of Kazakh khanate written literature was also developing that was mainly created in court environment and mostly in a form of historical compositions. History has preserved many  works that are significant not only as chronicle or narrative sources but also as monuments of fiction of Turkic peoples during late medieval period. Among them we can note a remarkable book of memoir literature such as Zakhriddin Babur's "Babur-name", historical composition of Kadyrgali Zhalairi "Zhami at-tauarikh", Abylgazy Bahadurkhan's book "Shezhre-i Turk" written in traditions of medieval historical Oriental prose, composition "Tarikh-i Rashidi" and Mukhammed Khaidar Dulati's poem "Djakhan-name".

    The volume begins with an introductory article of S.A.Kaskabassov, Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, that includes identification of chronological boundaries of history and literature of Golden Horde and Kazakh khanate periods and brief description.

    Monograph sections highlight creative work of the well known representatives of written literature and zhyrau poetry of the mentioned period and creative work of sheshens-bis of XVIII centuries such as Tole-bi, Kazybak-bi, Aktailak-bi, Syrym sheshen, Boltirik sheshen has been presented for the first time who were singing and confirming the ideals to which the residents of Kazakh khanate should strive. Their creative work has original form and content and therefore in genre aspect they combine prose and poetry.

    This volume highlights Armenia written Kypchak literary monument of XVI century such as "History of wise Khikar". This ancient Oriental creation that have overcome oblivion and didn't loose its charm. The novel is written in flexible artistic forms. This is a history about ungrateful nephew and it includes exhortations, parables and mysteries.   Significant part in the novel is given to edifications.  It includes behests  and wisdom  of ages.

    So this volume includes researches done in a wide scale, complex and historical consequence  way,  of all significant stages of zhyrau poetry development in written Kazakh literature of XIII-XVIII centuries.

    In writing of the sections of the third volume the following staff were involved: N.Kelimbetov, Doctor of philology, professor ("Literature of Golden Horde epoch", "Kutb", "Khorezmi", "Saif Sarai", "Durbek", "Historical shezhreand artistic tradition", "Abylgazy Bahadurkhan", "Zahiriddin Mukhammed Babyr"); S.Kaskabassov, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan ("Introduction", "Literature of Kazakh khanate period"); A.Derbisali, Doctor of philology, professor("Mukhammed Khaidar Dulati"); R.G.Syzdyk, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, M.Koigeldiev, Doctor of historical sciences,  professor ("Kadyrgali Zhalairi"); M.Zharmukhammeduly, Doctor of philology, professor ("Sypyra zhyrau", "Assan Kaigy", "Bukhar zhyrau", "Creation of bis-sheshens", "Kazybek-bi"); U.Kumisbayev, Doctor of philology, professor ("Umbetei")Z.Dadebayev, Doctor of philology, professor ("Tole-bi", "Syrym sheshen", "Boltirik sheshen"); M.Magauin, Candidate of philology ("Tatikara"); K.Sydiykuly, Candidate of philology, Docent ("Shalkiiz (Shalgez) zhyrau"); S.Korabai, Candidate of philology, Docent ("Kumanikus code", "History of wise Khikara", "Dospambet", "Kaztugan", "Aktamberdi", "Aktailak-bi"); S.Kosan, Candidate of philology ("Ali", "Zhiembet", "Aiteke-bi"); A.Alipbekuly, Candidate of philology ("Kypchak literature of Egipt"); G.Kurmangali, Candidate of philology ("Margaska").

     

    4 volume - history of Kazakh literature of the I half of XIX century

    The hіstory of the XXth century of the Kazakh lіterature іs a perіod of the fіrmly determіned tradіtіons and sіgnіfіcant creatіve dіscoverіes that are closely related to the hіstory of people and іts freedom-lovіng democratіc aspіratіons. The begіnnіng of the century was marked by the rapіd growth of the process of colonіzatіon of the country by Tsar regіme, the fіrst severe step of whіch was the elіmіnatіon of the Khan power wіth further іntroductіon of the new form of government that was convenіent for the Admіnіstratіon bodіes of the Central power.

    Thіs had an іmpact on the development of the tradіtіonal oral-poetіc creatіon of the people. New socіal-polіtіcal condіtіons have made the lіterature sіgnіfіcantly close to the lіfe іnterests of people. Prevіous іnstіtutіon of Zhyraus (Kazakh poet who creates hіs or her verses orally) that was establіshed by Khan power now was gradually transformed іnto the category of Akyns (a poet іn Kazakh) who were closer to the people and therefore the maіn content of theіr art was mostly determіned by the dіrect spіrіtual needs and іnterests of the ordіnary people.

    Namely thіs factor has condіtіoned the need of consіderіng the regulatіons of the development of the natіonal lіterature of that tіme іn close lіnkage wіth the hіstory of people. Complіcated іssues of socіal-economіc lіfe of the socіety as well as sіmple іssues of labor and everyday lіfe of people became the topіcs for the creatіve work of the Akyns.

    Sіmultaneously and іn regard to thіs process іn the conscіousness of the people and leadіng persons there was an anxіety caused by the strengthenіng of the colonіal polіcy of the Tsar, the іdea of natіonal-lіberatіon movement was developіng. The begіnnіng of the trend so called "epoch of sorrow" іn the poetry confіrms thіs, and later the heroіc poems reflectіng the struggle agaіnst colonіal enslavement.

    The scіentіfіc project "Regulatіons of the development of the Kazakh lіterature of the new epoch (from the XІXth century to the begіnnіng of the XXth century)" for the fіrst tіme provіdes profound research of the іssue of the creatіve successіon of the promіnent poets and wrіters of the XІXth century and the begіnnіng of XXth century the regulatіons of the development of lіterature of the іnvestіgated perіod are beіng analyzed, the іmportant іssues of the hіstorіcal lіterary process and maіn lіterary trends are beіng developed.

    Three volumes of the present ten volumes edіtіon іncludіng the hіstory of the whole natіonal lіterature are dedіcated to the hіstory of the Kazakh lіterature of the new epoch . Thіs perіod іs condіtіonally dіvіded іnto three stages.

    Fіrst stage - the fіrst half of the XІX century that іs characterіzed by the begіnnіng of the Akyn creatіve work that іs closer to lіfe.

    The 5th volume іs dedіcated to the next stage іncludіng the second half of the century, іs marked by the further іmprovement of the skіlls of the authors of the oral-poetіc genre and begіnnіng of the new phenomenon іn the hіstory of people- educatіonal movement. The promіnent representatіves of thіs movement are Chokan Valіkhanov, the fіrst Kazakh scіentіst, Іbray Altynsarіn, poet- pedagogue and Abay Kunanbayev, the genіus phіlosopher, the founder of the natіonal wrіtten lіterature whose creatіve actіvіty contrіbuted much to the development of Kazakh lіterature of the XІX century- the golden century of the Kazakh lіterature. The 6th volume іs devoted to the begіnnіng of the XXth century, whіch hіghlіghts the іssues of the further development of Altay tradіtіons, partіcularly іn regard to the creatіve actіvіty of the fіgures of Alash-Orda, caused by the іdeas of the fіrst Russіan revolutіons. By the way, thіs segment іs a new page for the contemporary hіstory of Kazakh lіterature as іt was unknown for a long tіme because of the polіtіcal reasons and now іs for the fіrst tіme consіdered as a wіde scіentіfіc іnvestіgatіon.

    The іntroductіon of the proposed 4th volume іncludes a wіde revіew of the works of the Akyns. Іt hіghlіghts the most sіgnіfіcant іssues of lіterature іn close relatіon to the regulatіons of the development of the socіal-polіtіcal process of that tіme. Most of whіch are revealed for the fіrst tіme іn regard of the new approaches to the socіal-polіtіcal events of the lіfe.

    Separate chapters are devoted to the most well known authors, іncludіng such promіnent representatіves of the epoch of sorrow as Dulat Babataіuly, Shortanbaі Kanaіuly and heroіc poetry reflectіng the theme of the natіonal-lіberatіon movement represented by Makhambet Utemіsov, whose creatіve work іs presented completely and wіth profound revealіng of the іdeal-aesthetіcal works.

    5 volume - history of Kazakh literature of the II half of XIX century

    By the second half of the ХІХ century new Kazakh literature has been widely spread and was recognized, the literature this period is characterized by clear realistic features of artistic reality.

    New period of Kazakh literature is one of the most rich, intensive, fruitful and at the same time difficult centuries in the history of literary art. Traditionally this period was and will be a glorious crown of many sided combination of skill of high artistic word and national-civil maturity of the writers and poets of that period.

    New horizons of Kazakh literature widely open during the first half of the XIX century, thanks to the colorful talented creative work of the original writers - giants Dulat, Makhambet, Shortanbai, later Abay, Shokan, Ibirai Altynsarin on the edge of XX century have brought wide recognition and meaning to the new Kazakh fiction, putting development of national self consciousness in the head of the complicated process.

    ХІХ century was a time of awakening of national consciousness for Kazakh people as well as other peoples. This multi-plan social-political process has been reflected in the literature of that period. Therefore the works of the akyns and zhyraus of that period serve as a big source of the noble ideas, high civil morality and love for freedom.

    The process of revival of national self consciousness in people in Kazakh literature begins with deep understanding of national originality, civic spirit, freedom of thought - qualitatively new stage within many centuries old history of Kazakh people. Literature of the second half of ХІХ century, being a successor of the best traditions of classical Kazakh literature has been extended due to the new fresh brave colors. First of all, literary works began more realistic reflection of the reasons and consequences of the reforms in social-political life of Kazakh steppe, transformation in the conseousness of the people after setting of the regime of colonial policy of Russian monarchy. Favorable Kazakh land was declared state property of Russian government, completely new management regime has been established, state system of Khanate have been destroyed and underwent complete reforming. Changes that took place in peoples life, further invasion and criminal cruelty of Tsar colonial policy have been sharply criticized in the works of the akyns, philosophers of that that period. If the main idea and topic of literary works of the first half of ХІХ century was a deep hostility and sharp opposition to colonial policy that have later became an appeal to national-liberation movement (Dulat, Makhambet, Shortanbai and others), during second half of XIХ century the idea of education was prevailing, willingness of political struggle, national independence through governmental-legal, democratic reforms, total education (Abay, Shokan, Ibirai, Shadi, Mailykozha and others).

    Trends and genres of traditional literature (historical epic, tolgau, philosophic lyrics, aitis, nazira, ritual songs, traditions of sal-seri, song writers etc) have continued their further development. Creative links with Oriental countries, advanced Russian democratic literature have been strengthened. Whole Pleiades of akyns, narrators, bibliophiles have appeared who have translated the best samples of Oriental literature into Kazakh language, created qualitatively new works on Oriental plots in Kazakh. They have contributed to the rapid development of book publishing, periodicals in Kazakh language in Kazakhstan and neighboring countries.

    Research materials of the fifth volume "History of Kazakh literature" included overall analysis of the development of the second final period of the new Kazakh realistic literature (1850-1900) and are the continuation of the fourth volume.

    This research is representing the generalization of the regularities of the development of Kazakh literature from the middle to the end of ХІХ century. Topic, genre-artistic method of investigation have been selected. Such principle enables to to outline the most significant and typical features of literary development. Monographs are devoted to the most important ...... of artistic word (Ibirai Altysarin, Akmolla Mukhamediaruly, Murat Monkeuly, Bazar-zhyrau Ondasuly, Akan Koramsauly, Birzhan Kozhagululy, Mailikozha Shotanuly, Arip Tanirbergenuly and others).

    Special place is devoted to creative work of the great philosopher Abay Kunanbayuly and laboratory of his poetic school.

    The scientific edition includes generalized experience of artistic-esthetic, social-civil school, trends of Kazakh literature. Especially Kazakh literature of the second half of XIX century has set a goal to solve important social, moral and esthetic issues, philosophic issues of Kazakh society. Especially Kazakh literature of the second half of XIX century has paid much attention to those works that have reflected dreams of people about freedom, independent development. A number of works of this period have for the first time have been subjected to scientific analysis and research. The book includes substantial analysis of the new Kazakh literature and tendencies of the development of literary process of the second half of XIX century. The most significant issues of literature are considered in close linkage with regularities of the development of social-political process of that period most of which are for the first time revealed in regard of new approaches to the events of national history. Introduction part of the volume includes review of akyns creative work. Creative portraits of Abay Kunanbaiuly, Shokan Ualikhanov, Ibirai Altynsarin, Akmolla Mukhamediyaruly, Murat Monkeuly, Bazar zhyrau Ondasuly, Akan Koramsauly, Shangerei Bokeeva, Musabek Baizakuly, Aktan Kereiuly, Birzhan sal Kozhagululy, Shadi Zhangirov, Mailykozha Shatnuly, Arip Tanirbergenuly, Nurzhan Naushabaiuly, Aset Naimanbayuly, represent separate monographic value. Creative work of many other bright representatives of this period have been analyzed on the pages of a substantial section - review. Bibliographic directories, description of manuscripts, information on researchers and collectors are included in a separate addition section.

    5th volume is devoted to the second half of ХІХ century that is known by further improvement of skills of the creators of the oral-poetic genre and appearance of the new phenomenon in the history of people- movement of enlightenment, prominent representatives such as the first Kazakh scientist Shokan Ualikhanov, geneous philosopher, founder of national written literature Abay and poet-teacher Ibrai Altynsarin whose creative work provided basis to name nineteenth century a gold century of Kazakh literature.

     

    6 volume - history of Kazakh literature of the beginning of ХХ century

    The sixth book "History of Kazakh literature" highlights the main tendencies and special features of the development of literature in the beginning of XX century, identification of artistic originality of the creative heritage of the public figures of that period.

    So the fourth-sixth books of the ten volume edition "History of Kazakh literature" covering huge period of time, consider regulations of development of domestic artistic literature of the whole epoch, watch its development from oral-poetic creativity to the written forms of professional literature, from first experience of realistic description of the life to classical forms of artistic assimilation of the reality till Soviet period.

    This period was characterized by the development of multisided and multi-genre forms of national literature, development and strengthening of fruitful realistic traditions. It is known that the simultaneous research of its various historical-theoretic issues took place alongside with its growth.

    It should be noted that the whole book of the three volume part "History of Kazakh literature" was dedicated to the academic analysis of the events of the artistic creativity of the XXth century. Basic research of the development of national literature was done by M.Auezov, S.Mukanov, E.Ismailova, B.Kenzhebaeva, H.Zhumalieva, T.Nurtazina and others.

    National literature of the XXth century is rich and diverse. However regretfully many names and events of this period due to certain reasons later have been isolated from the whole stream of literary development. However the investigations of M.Auezov "History of literature" (1927), S.Seifullin "Kazakh literature" (1932), S.Mukanov "Kazakh literature of XXth century" (1932) are still significant and have been isolated due to the same reasons.

    Research works made during reorganization and transparency period have gained new features. So the works "Kazakh literature of XXth century. Pre-October period" (Reader, 1983), "Poets of five centuries" (volume 3, 1985), "Kazakh literature of the beginning of XXth century" (1994), "Kazakh literature of 20-30th" (1997) etc.

    Literature studies specialists have faced completely new conditions and a wide sphere of activity during Independence period. Artistic values of post-Abay period have been returned to the people including valuable treasures of the writers of so called Alash-Orda trend. Respectively the need of a new vision, new trends in the study and highlighting of this rich heritage has occurred.

    During preparation of the materials of the fifth volume of this edition many issues were considered from the new methodological point of view in order to release them from the influence of the previous ideological dictate with narrow class evaluation of the literary phenomena. Almost all contents of the sixth volume were full of the spirit of renewal of the previous ideas.

    The need of consideration of the ideal-esthetic merits of certain literary phenomena have been proposed in close relation with concrete-historical features of that period with firm appeals of the social progress. The need was focused on the linkage between national literature and history of people, special attention has been drawn to the organic links between the artistic truth and historical truth. New realities of educational-democratic direction in literature have been considered in the view of the artistic-esthetic traditions of people in close relationship with them.

    Namely from those positions the approach was determined to the evaluation and study of the new heritage of Shakarim Kudaibergenov, Alikhan Bukeikhanov, Akhmet Baitursynov, Mirzhakip Dulatov, Magzhan Zhumabaev, Sabit Donentaev, Sultan-Makhmut Toraigyrov. Those heritages that have enriched people's treasure have been considered as an organic continuation and further development of the great tradition of Abay that became a real stimulation of the further flourish of the national literature.

    As a result of the return of the prohibited earlier names and phenomena the contemporary Kazakh literature has been enriched, poetic slat has rose, spiritual linkage between the society and literature became more vivid, the influence of the spiritual factors on the national consciousness of people has increased.

    All these factors have determined the whole content of this book that is recommended for the readers attention.

    Well known specialists of literary studies in the Republic have been involved in the preparation of the sixth volume. Works of the well known specialists of literature studies of the past period who have contributed to the research of the regulations of the development of the artistic literature of that period and their opinions have been included into this collective edition.

    The book includes general review of the creative work and bibliographic data of the most poets and writers. Monographic portraits (descriptions) have been dedicated to the most prominent fifteen figures well known in literature. The foreword and introduction ("Kazakh literature of the beginning of XX century") have written by the doctor of Philology, professor, research project leader A.K.Egeubaev.

    Following researchers have been involved in writing of the monograph portraits: S.S.Kirabaev, professor, Doctor of Philology, member of the NAS of Kazakhstan ("Sultan-Makhmut Toraigyrov"); R.Nurgali, professor, Doctor of Philology, member of the NAS of Kazakhstan ("A.N.Bokeikhanov"); Z.Ismagulov, professor, Doctor of Philology, member of the NAS of Kazakhstan ("Akhmet Baitursynov, Mirzhakip Dulatov"); B.Abdigaziev and M.Bazarbaev, professors, Doctors of Philology, members of the NAS of Kazakhstan "Shakarim Kudaiberdiev"); professor B.Abdigaziev ("Shakarim Kudaiberdiev, Narmanbet Ormanbet"); professor T.Kakishev ("S.Donentaev"), K. Mashkhur-Zhusup ("Mashkhur-Zhusup Kopeev"); T.Tebegenov, professor, Doctor of Philology ("Taiyr Zhomartbaev"); S.Baimenshe, Doctor of Philology ("Zhiengali Tlepbergenov"; K.Ergobek, Candidate of Philology ("Mukhametzhan Seralin"); K.Sydikov, Candidate of Philology ("Gumar Karash"), S.Zhamekov, Candidate of Philology ("Berniyaz Kuleev").

    7 volume - history of Kazakh literature of 20-30th of ХХ century

    The 7th volume of the "History of Kazakh Literature" includes 20th-30th years (1917-1940) of the Soviet period.

    The book is topical because it meets the requirements of determining the specific features of the intensive historical-literary and artistic phenomena at the new level, that were until now explained in unilateral way.

    It is obvious that independence of the country requests investigations of the history of the home country not within the multi-national state as it was earlier, but separately taken research, widely showing the victories and losses, strong and weak points of our nation at the various stages, that will enable to more profoundly reveal the regulations of the idea of struggling for independence. History of our literature that together with the people, culture of nation have experienced contradictory way of development needs consideration in this aspect. The works written earlier on this theme ("Essay of Kazakh Soviet literature") 1949, 1958. "History of Kazakh literature", 3d volume, 1967), couldn't comprehend the whole literary process. The names and works of the so called "alash-orda" writers were forgotten (A. Baitursynov, S. Kudaiberdiev, M. Dulatov, Z. Aimauytov, M. Zhumabaev). Soviet literature was studied mostly apart from the existing traditions. Other works were evaluated only according to the thematic features apart from their artistic values.

    The specific feature of the investigation is in a new interpretation of the mentioned issues, offering new concepts, fair evaluation of the creative work of many poets and writers, more complete and integral display of the truth that was hidden by the former literature, the guidelines based on the principle of evaluation of the works not only according their adjustments to the Soviet ideology as it was used in the past, but according to the eternal requirements of the art of word and artistic merit. These requirements completely comply with the state program "Kazakhstan-2030" and "Cultural heritage".

    The structure of the book is based on the chapters: "Kazakh literature in the 20th-20th ", "Poetry", "Prose", "Drama, literary criticism" and literary portraits of the poets and writers: "Jusipbek Aimautov", "Magjan Jumabaev", "Saken Seifulh'n", "Ilias Jansugurov", "Beimbet Mailin", "Jambul Jabaev", "Nurpeis Baiganin", "Issa Baizakov". It also includes the carefully prepared sub-sections: "Chronicle of the literary life" and "Brief bibliographic directory of Kazakh literature of the 20th-30Ul ".

    The introduction includes the issues concerning the conditions that influenced the literary process, positions of the Kazakh writers in regard of the October Revolution, activities on attracting writers to the Party side, discussions during the period of establishing writers organizations, selection of literary personnel, writers forums, that took place during the 30th, triumph of the Party principles etc.

    The chapter devoted to the works of S. Seifullin and M. Jumabaev that have pointed different directions in literary development of in the 20th, includes their philosophy and principles, typization, artistic achievements and weak poi caused by the contradictions of the epoch. It includes profound research of the issues, artistic tradition, artistic cognition and taste and esthetic perception. The content, artistic world, specific features of poetic search of the poems of M. Zhumabaev "Batyr Bajan", S. Seifullin "Kokshetau", S. Mukanov "Slushash", I. Jansugurov "Kushi", "Kulager", I. Baizakov "Kuralai slu" etc.

    The issues of the accelerated development of prosaic genres were considered based on the first prosaic works of such writers as S. Seifullin, M. Auezov, Z. Aimautov, B. Mailin, S. Mukanov etc. and a great aspiration to create a novel was underlined, search of different years, their topics and artistic features. New conclusions on the novel of S. Seifullin "Difficult way", Z. Aimautov "Kartkoja", "Akbilek", S. Mukanov "Lost people", "Mysterious ban " ("Botakoz"), their novelty searches and artistic features.

    The parties of artistic amateur performances of the youth stimulated the development of the drama art and birth of dramaturgy works. It is also presented that the founders of the first genres of this kind were J. Aimautov "Rabiga", "Careerist", "Kanapia-Sharbanu", M. Auezov "Enlik-Kebek", "Baibishe-Tokal", "Karakoz", S. Seifullin "On the way to happiness", "Red falcons", B. Mailin "Mulla Shanshar", "School", "Marriage", "Glasses", Z. Shanin "Batyr Arkalyk", K. Kemengerova "Golden ring", J. Tlepbergenov "Perizat-Ramazan". The attention to the historical conclusion and artistic quality of the first dramaturgy works related to the development of the Kazakh theatre art. Widely presented are the plays of M. Auezov "Enlik-Kebek", "Aiman-Sholpan", G. Musrepov "Kyz-Jibek", "Kozy-Korpesh- Bajan slu" etc.

    The evaluation was made of the samples of literary criticism, discussions on the ways of development of literature, different opinions in evaluation of the works of S. Seifullin, M. Zhumabaev, M. Auezov about the ways of understanding the role of socialistic realism , about contradictory ideas in evaluation of the cultural heritage and other, these issues are considered based on the example of the works of A. Baitursynov "Litarary guide", M. Auezov "History of literature", H. Dosmukhamedov "Literature of Kazakh people" (in Russian), S. Seifullin "Kazakh literature of the XXth century", K. Zhumaliev "Theory of literature", E. Ismailov "Issues of the theory of literature".

    The specific features of all monographic sections are the following signs: abundance of materials covering the truth of those years, concrete analysis. On this basis the creative features of each poet and writer of each poet and writer were clarified , their place in the history of national literature.

    In the collective research the well known representatives of Kazakh literature study were involved.

     

    8 volume - history of Kazakh literature of 40-60th of ХХ century

    The 8t volume of the "History of Kazakh literature" is devoted to Kazakh literature of Soviet period 1940-1950. It highlights the ways of development, changing of genre forms and other aspects of literary movement in Kazakhstan beginning from the Great Patriotic war (1941) up to the middle of 1950. In this volume as well as in the previous one, the literature that has developed under the influence of the ideology of the Soviet period is reinterpreted from the new positions. The special features of the creative laboratory has been determined, new evaluation of the artistic merit of the literary works was made. In this direction the researchers intended to reveal the achievements and mistakes and also the influence of policy on the Kazakh literature that has developed in parallel with the Russian and world literatures. They tried to draw attention to the National literary interest and the struggle for the independence that took place during this period. All abovementioned aims and objectives completely coincide with the state program "Kazakhstan-2030" and "Cultural Heritage".

    The book consists of the following chapters: "Mukhtar Auezov", "Sabit Mukhanov" "Gabit Musrepov", "Gabiden Mustafm", "Tair Zharokov", "Abdilda Tazhibaev", "Gali Ormanov", "Kasym Amanzholov", "Kalizhan Bekhojin", "Kazakh literature during 40-50th", "Poetry", "Prose", "Dramaturgy", "Literary criticism" and literary portraits of the poets and writers. In addition it includes the following chapters: "Literary linkages", "Literature of Kazakh people in Mongolia and China", "Chronicle of literary life" , "Bibliographic directory of Kazakh literature in 40-50th ".

    In the introduction the peculiarities of the literary process of the same period, political and social factors that influenced on the literature were considered. Also the reflection of the theme of front and rear in the literature during the Great Patriotic war was considered.

    The chapter devoted to poetry investigated in details the lyrics and poem of Kazakh literature. Front songs created during the Great patriotic war were analyzed (K.Amanzholov, Zh. Sain, A. Sarsenbaev, D.Abilev) and the poetry of peaceful post-war time. Here the poems that had enriched Kazakh fiction literature were considered: among them works of K.Bekhojin "Maria-Egor's daughter", H.Ergaliev "Kurmangazy", G.Kairbekova "Steppe bell", Z.Moldagaliev "I am Kazakh", M.Alimbaev "My Kazakhstan", A.Tazhibaev "Portraits" etc.

    The development of the prosaic genre during 40-501 was considered: the leading role of the novel was determined. New conclusions on the search researches and artistic achievements were presented in such works as the second book of the novel of M.Auezov "Abay" , renewed version of the novel "Botagoz" ("Mysterious flag") and S.Mukanov's "Syr-Daria" , Gabit Musrepov's "Kazakh soldier" and "Awakened land", G. Mustafin's "Millionaire" and "Karaganda" .

    The chapter "Dramaturgy" demonstrated how Kazakh dramaturgy has raised to the classical level on the material of the plays of M. Auezov "Karakoz", "Night motive", " Trouble time", "Amangeldy" ( co-author G.Musrepov), "Abay" (co­author L.Sobolev), G.Musrepov's plays "Kozy-Korpesh and Bajan Sulu" , "Akhan

    seri-Aktokty", S.Mukanov's "Chokan Valikhanov", A.Tazhibaev's "Maira", "We are Kazakhs!", "One tree is not a forest", S. Kussainov's " Spoilt mollycoddle", "Shansharlar", "Aldar kose".

    The main achievements of the national dramaturgy of 40-50t were the historical-biographical and legend-epic plays. Many of them were included into the golden foundation of the national dramaturgy and became classical samples of this genre. The development of the national theatric art is closely linked with those genres.

    The development of the national literary criticism took place during this period. Folklore researches undertaken during the previous years of the works of M.Auezov, H.Dosmukhamedov and S.Sefullin were systemized. The first volume "History of Kazakh literature" (1948), "Essays on the history of Kazakh Soviet literature" under the edition of K.Zhumaliev (1949), monographs about the works of the prominent representatives of Kazakh literature that are considered as the achievements of criticism and literary criticism have been published.

    The heritage of S.Seifullin, B.Mailin, I.Zhansugurov have taken their worthy place in the history of literature and their creative work became an object of scientific research. In the literary criticism a new wave of young specialists in literature studies have appeared such as A.Nurkatov, S.Kirabaev, Z.Kabdolov, T.Alimkulov, R.Berdibay, M.Bazarbaev, B.Sakhariev.

    For the first time in the history of Kazakh literature, the literature of Chinese and Mongolian Kazakhs during the period of 1920-1950lh was investigated. The separate chapter highlights the stages of development of the literature of Kazakh people in China and Mongolia on genres, creative laboratories of the well known representatives of the various genres.

    The following features are typical for all monographic sections: abundance of materials, covering literary process of those years, concrete analysis of the works. Creative features and searches of the well known poets and writers of this period, their place in the history of the national literature were considered.

    The well known representatives of Kazakh literary criticism science took part in conducting this joint research.

     

    9 volume - history of Kazakh literature of 60-80th of ХХ century

    The 9th volume «History of Kazakh literature» includes the third and the last stage of the development of Kazakh literary art of the Soviet period (1956-1990).

    Being the continuation of the literary process investigated in the 7th and 8th volumes this period in comparison with the previous is noted by the number of special features. This is first of all due to the changes that took part in the social-political life of the countries after the exposure the cult of Stalin. The reconsideration of values took place, the policy of distrust to a person, suspicion and seeing in him the potential enemy, the policy of economic and political isolation from the rest of the world were criticized. The thaw that took place in the life of the country favorably influenced the development of multinational literature and art. The measures were undertaken for correcting mistakes made by Party resolutions of 1946-1948. Unfairly repressed writers and poets such as /S.Seifullin, B.Mailin, I.Zhansugurov and others/. As a result the social and creative activity of the writers has increased who in their new works have criticized and condemned antihuman essence of Stalinism

    The generation of «sixties» has developed and strengthened (K.Myrzaliev, T.Moldagaliev, S.Zhunisov, M.Makataev, A.Kekilbaev, M.Magauin, D.Isabekov, O.Bokeev and others). Literature has revealed new social conflicts that truly reflected the essence of the epoch, created the types of the heroes with unlimited free minds, getting rid of dogmatic distortions that restricted creative quests. In cooperation with the writers-soldiers (D. Moldagaliev, S.Maulenov, TAkhtanov, A.Nurpeisov) they overcame the strict norms of Socialistic realism willing to describe historical stages from the new life positions. The lyrics devoted to the themes that earlier were not highlighted or even forbidden became widely spread (about love and nature), the prose provided possibility for profound and overall revealing of human fates by means of psychological analysis,

    The research includes summary of the experience of ideal-esthetical achievements of Kazakh literature that gained recognition in the Soviet Union and worldwide, its close connection with life. Special attention was paid to those works of national literature that reflected eternal dreams of people about freedom and independence. Their pathos is close to the ideas included into the State programs «Kazakhstan-2030» and «Cultural heritage».

    The structure of the book includes reviews on genre features: «Literature of the 60-80th», «Prose», «Poesy», «Dramatic art», «Criticism and study of literature» and creative portraits of the distinguished writers-poets such as LEsenberiin, H.Ergaliev, Z.Moldagaliev, S.Maulenov, TAkhtanov, ANurpeisov, K.Mukhamedjanov, G.Kairbekov, S.Zhunisov, M.Makataev, K.Myrza-Ali, T.Moldagaliev, A.Kekilbaev, m.Magauin, KJskakov, S.Murtaza. Materials of those chapters are adding the following sections,- «Literary linkages», «Literature of China and Mongolia», «Russian language Kazakh literature » and «Chronicle of literary life in 60-80th», «Bibliographic directory of Kazakh literature in60-80th».

    The introduction includes the tendencies of the development of literary process of the 60th-80th based on the analysis of the number of important works. The issues of development of the history of Kazakh literature especially those that for along time were under the pressure of Party authorities, censor control, many other issues as time, society and personality- all these issues were considered in their interrelationship.

    The chapter devoted to poesy genre was investigated according to its two components: lyrics and poem. The investigation underlines the energy and response of the lyrics to the advanced ideas of the time period, the features were noted thanks to which its artistic level was raised to the new qualitative level. It includes the fact of uneven development of the epic genre, its reasons and consequences. Scientific evaluation is provided and the place of contemporary Kazakh poesy was determined, the most interesting poems of the poets such as A-Sarsenbaev, G.Kairbekov, T.Zharokov, D.Moldagaliev, S.Zhienbaev, H.Ergaliev, A.Shamkenov, TAAbdrakhmanov, M.Shakhanov, KMyrzaliev, F.Ungarsynova, KZhumagaliev.

    The development of prose genre was considered based on the works of the prominent writers. Prose was investigated according to its main genres: the narrative, story, novel (historical and contemporary themes). The subject of study: the works of TAlimkulov, O.Bokeev, T.Nurmagambetov, D.Isabekov and other writers who contributed much to the development and blooming of the story genre The main features of the story genre were determined in the works of G.Musrepov «Ulpan», ASharipov «Guerrilla's daughter», N.Gabdullin «Kesteli oramal», B.Sokpakbaev «Kolgabis», S.Shaimerdenov «Mezgil», TAlimkulov «Kok karshiga», KZhumadilov «Kokeikesti», M.Magauin «Kara kiz», T.Nurmagambetov «On tort zhasar jigit» and others.

    The chapter «Contemporary novel» includes the evaluation of the works of the sixties and eighties from the point of view of the present period The novels on the contemporary themes written by TAkhtanov, Z.Shashkin, K.Zhumadilov, D.Isabekov, D.Doszhanov and others. During investigation of the novel «Khan Kene» written by I.Esenberlin who was considered the founder of the historical nevels of the last years and the novels of M.Magauin «Spring waters», AAlimzhanov «Herald», S.Smataeva «Mother land», AKekilbaev «Urker», KZhumadilov «Daraboz» the originality and novelty of their artistic searches were revealed.

    The book includes the detailed advantages of Kazakh dramatic art of the considered period that consistently following the best traditions were enriched by the value works written in the spirit of the time when they were created. The historical plays of S.Murtaza, O.Bodykov, contemporary themes of TAkhtanov, S.Zhunisov were investigated. Special attention is paid to the successful and innovative ideas of the plays of O.Bokey, D.Isabekov, N.Orazalin, A.Suleimenov, S.Balgabaev in which the creative and philosophic depth in investigating social phenomena, arrangement of the event and conflict upheaval is observed thanks to which it was possible to avoid common features and repetitions.

    The criticism and literary study have developed according to the requirements of the time period. They reflect the trends of literary process of the investigated period, the number of important issues of the development of national literature were vividly set and decided.

    The analysis was provided of the life and creative ways of the poets-writers whose works were translated into foreign languages, distinguishing features of the artistic quest of each writer, their connections with the world literature. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the contribution of the masters of artistic word into the national treasury, identify their place in Kazakh literature.

    The well known researchers of the Kazakh literary studies participated in the collective research work.

     

    10 volume - history of Kazakh literature of independence period

    The 10th concluding volume of the "History of Kazakh literature" is devoted to the research of the ways of development of Kazakh verbal art at the end of словесного XXth and beginning of the XXI century /1991-2001/. The mentioned period is covering relatively small period of time - ten years-however, according to the level of the ideal-artistic renewal it represents the whole epoch in the centuries-old history of Kazakh literature. The efforts of the authors were aimed first of all to the identification of the character of this renewal, revealing its regulations occurring in the depth of the artistic development under the influence of the social-economic and spiritual transformations that took place during recent years.

    The structure of the volume is determined adequately to the special features of the research. As the circle of artists who have important influence on the ideal-esthetical direction and literary style of independence period hasn't been yet well developed, it was decided to restrain yet from creating literary portraits of the prominent writers and poets. The main attention was drawn to the realizing of the literature of the decade according to the system of genre differentiation, originality of their themes and issues. So come the titles of the chapters and subchapters: "Prose: discovery of the contemporary time", "Historical novel: fates of the country, nation, "Memoirs; confession prose", "Eternal love theme", "Story". "Stories of the recent years". "Lyrics", "Poem".

    As in the previous volumes this book includes the following sections: "Chronicle of literary life", "Bibliography directory of Kazakh literature", this time covering only one decade - 1991-2001.

    Foreword and introduction include references of the structure of the book, chapters and information about the authors and the initial part of researches that provide orientation to the readers about the presentation of the initial ideas, peculiarities of the setting and developing of the theme, revealing the meaning of the book and its linkages with the State Program "Cultural Heritage".

    Here also the definition of both ideal and esthetical originality of the decade works that distinguish it as a special period. Its essence is concluded first of all in the interpretation of the intention of the art itself. Contemporary Kazakh literature, all its genres: prose, poesy, dramatic art, criticism and study of literature and freedom of creativity have gained features that all together provided another sign to the literature.

    The most typical features of the present time Post-Soviet stage are as follows:

    Rejection of the canons of socialistic realism with its strict tendencies, indisputable requirements of describing class hostility between different peoples stratums, mythologizing of the utopian ideals contradicting with reality;

    Extending of the historical and objective approach to the life, setting interests of the nation and the country as a first priority;

    Appearance of the signs of the de-ideologization of the literature. Tolerance and respect to various opinions. Pluralism providing occurrence of the works written in the direction of social realism or post-modernism positions.

    The chapter devoted to the prose of the decade includes the analysis of the great number of novels and stories about the past and contemporary periods. Spiritual-moral outcomes of the decade are especially depicted in the novels of A.Nurpeissov "Last duty", Z.Kabdulov "My Auezov", К.Issabaev "Shon bi", S. Murtaza "The moon and Aisha", А.Tarazi "Retribution", К.Segizbaev "Passing", B. Mukai "Vain life", К.Zhumadilov "Daraboz", А.Altay "Ballade of Altay" etc. The idea of the outcomes - in the setting of the big issues of time, devoted to the life and fate of the nation and often interrelated with the common humanity issues. Small genres of prose, several stories demonstrating their mobility have actively switched to the creation the types of the heroes of the new epoch, lively issues of market relations.

    The book for the first time includes separate prose genres such as: documentary literature, issues of contemporary satire, fantasy world.

    The chapters "Lyrics", "Poem" reflect present state of the ancient type of the national literature -poetry. The object of research were the lyrical works of N.Orasalin, T.Moldagaliev, M.Shakhanov, F.Ungarsynova and other poets whose poems reflect the scale of poetic vision, joining all layers of important stages of the national history, civil tonus, richness of spiritual publicity, critical intonations. Here also the poems are considered which describe the spirit of different epochs, diversity of the contemporary life.

    Genre of dramatic art during the investigation period has been enriched due to the national-liberation theme.

    Two chapters of the volume are devoted to study of literature and criticism. Their increased activity is noted especially in eliminating of so called white spots in the history of literature. These are works about life and creative work of S.Kudaiberdiev, M.Zhumabaev, A.Baitursunov, M.Dulatov, Z.Aimautov. From the "top" of the contemporary life also the works of the prominent figures of literature of the Soviet epoch are considered.

    The volume includes the chapters: "Multinational literature of Kazakhstan", "Literary linkages".

    The authors of the collective research are the prominent researchers and also young representatives of Kazakh literary criticism science.

     

     

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