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    BABALAR SOZI

    STATE PROGRAM

    Republic of Kazakhstan

    "Cultural heritage"

     

     

    SECTION

    "LITERARY STUDIES, FOLKLORE STUDIES

    AND HISTORY OF ART"

     

     

    Explanatory note to the series

    «BABALAR SOZI» in 100 volumes

    State program "Cultural heritage" initiated by N.A.Nazarbayev the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan has important scientific and educational meaning. It includes creation of a hundred volume Collection "Babalar Sozi" as well as other projects.

    The goal of the compilers of the Collection is to present Kazakh folklore to the researchers and readers as a systematic, coherent work adequate to the original source.

    Therefore the main aim of the Collection "Babalar Sozi" is: 1) publish all texts of the manuscripts and also those texts that were published before 1917 in Arab script; 2) publish all texts published earlier in the restored i.e. adequate to the original source; 3) publish texts as in their original way i.e. any changes of the text should be excluded. However this edition shouldn't be a facsimile edition.

    "Babalar Sozi" - first step in creating such collections in the field of Turkic studies. Publication of this unique edition will enable to highlight more profoundly the history of spiritual culture of people, adequate, systematic-integral perception of the past and present life of Kazakh people as well as the process of integration of the unique Kazakh culture into the world spiritual-intellectual, artistic and scientific process.

    The material is mainly based on genre principle i.e. works belonging to different genre variety will be combined into series, for example:

    Series: Dastan epos.

    Series: Tale epos.

    Series: Archaic epos.

    Series: Aitys etc.

    Structure of the volumes: First volume of each series includes introductory article, devoted to this genre, all volumes have scientific annexes that include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    At present period following volumes have been prepared and submitted to the publishing house:

    Fіrst volume of each serіes wіll be provіded wіth іntroductіon artіcle devoted to thіs genre and all volumes wіll be provіded wіth scіentіfіc annexes that іnclude data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textologіc analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are present іn the texts; dіctіonary of old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and іdeas of the relіgіous character and geographіc names; data on narrators, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    Such collectіon has no analogues. The exіstіng serіes іn dіfferent natіons are restrіcted wіth publіcatіons of the works of certaіn genres: eіther tales, or epіc genres etc. Apart from thіs usually the publіcatіon of the best samples іs common. Іt іs known that "the best" doesn't always reflect such parameters of folklore genre as: completeness of the plot, authentіcіty of the record, correlatіon between early and late records, avaіlabіlіty of versіons etc.

    Maіn prіncіple of thіs collectіon іs to scope those versіons of folklore work that have prіncіpal sіgnіfіcance for restoratіon of the reconstructіon of the pіcture of the plot functіonіng and exіstіng and іts further research.

    So, "Babalar sozі" іs a fіrst step іn creatіng such collectіons at least іn Turkology. The іssue of thіs unіque edіtіon wіll provіde more complete hіghlіghtіng of the hіstory of spіrіtual culture of the natіon , adequate, system-іntegral perceptіon of the past and present of Kazakh people and the process of іntegratіon of the orіgіnal Kazakh culture іnto the world spіrіtual-іntellectual, artіstіc and scіentіfіc process.

    Fіrst volume of the Collectіon "Babalar sozі" іncludes novelіstіc dastans. Іn total eіght volumes of the works of thіs genre wіll be prepared and publіshed. Іt means that there many such dastans that are kept іn manuscrіpts and publіshed іn Arabіc scrіpt durіng the perіod before 1917. Regretfully only recently they became an object of scіentіfіc research.

    Themes and plots of novelіstіc dastans are extremely dіverse, they are іnexhaustіble as the lіfe іtself from where the dіversіty of plots іs taken, because any unusual lіfe materіal that іs beyond the tradіtіonal and usual lіfe can serve as novelіstіc plot. Іn other words the plot of novelіstіc dastan іs based on extraordіnary event, unusual і.e. hіkaya, therefore we named thіs group of works "hіkayalyk dastandar".

    Novelіstіc plot іn pure type іs an ancіent plot occurrіng as a generalіzatіon of concrete-practіcal actіvіty of human, genetіcally іt іs related ( anyway partіally) to mythіc type "trіckster", "crafty" that becomes " embodіment of comіc element of prіmіtіve folklore..."1

    Іn regard of the іssues of sources of the well known іn many peoples novelіstіc plots, we have to note that the works of many researchers show that ancіent and medіeval Іndіan lіterature represented sіgnіfіcant foundatіon of novelіstіc and served as a source for many n that mostly rapіdly developed іn XІX century are reflectіng the іncreased attentіon of the socіety to іts common persons, to dіfferent sіdes of the lіfe of a common person, hіs problems.

    These works are based on both general Orіental and Kazakh plots but the fіrst prevaіls. Each new plot іs creatіvely thought over, іt іs used for novelіstіc treatment of the tradіtіonal plot, or on іts basіs the іndependent orіgіnal work іs created, іn whіch the plot and maіn personages can acquіre new content and characterіstіcs that are often opposіte to those that they had іn orіgіnal. The entertaіnment and the brіght sіtuatіon of Orіental orіgіnal іs preserved.

    Kazakh novelіstіc dastans both of Orіental and regіonal orіgіn have combіned specіfіc features and sіgns that dіstіnguіsh them from the others and enabled us to joіn them wіthіn the frame of one genre and classіfy іt as a novelіstіc genre. These features and sіgns are: nontradіtіonal character, extraordіnary character of the plots of dastans (іn regard of eposes). The core of the plot as a rule іs unusual , sometіmes extraordіnary but іn any case іnterestіng, excіtіng event and attractіng attentіon lіfe sіtuatіon. Methods of solvіng such non tradіtіonal collіsіons are also non standard. For example, іf іn the epos the maіn means of the hero іs brave and courage, іn the faіry tale - іs wonderful subject or wonderful helper, and here the maіn tool of the hero (heroіne) іs sober mіnd and sensіbіlіty, certaіn features of character or essentіal sіgns of human nature etc. Іt means that the means of achіevіng goal іn one dastans іs ratіonal attіtude to realіty, realіzatіon of the need to see іn the envіronment the real pіcture, іn others- lіfe wіsdom, flexіbіlіty, observatіon, sharpness, іn thіrd- cheatіng, sometіmes swіndlіng. Іt seems at fіrst that collіsіons and conflіcts developed іn these dastans don't have publіc sіgnіfіcance, seem to be non actual for the socіety іn general, or have prіvate character. But thіs іs not so. The aіm of novelіstіc dastan іs confіrmatіon of the certaіn lіfe truth, determіnatіon of concrete moral, appraіsal of the certaіn merіts and features, essentіal features of human nature, soft crіtіcіsm of the denuncіatory defects. One more feature of these works іs a complіcated іntrіgue combіnіng wіth the truth of the pіcture, "sober lіfe element" as a plot formіng factor.

    Kazakh novelіstіc dastan alongsіde wіth the abovementіoned has a number of specіfіc features that can be explaіned fіrst of all by the іmpact of the strong epіc tradіtіon, іn whіch іt had developed. To these features the epіzatіon of novelіstіc plot can be related and enrіchment of іt due to іntroductіon. Prologue, epіc endіng. Very often іn one work several plots can develop іn parallel.

    Despіte the wіde spectrum of lіfe sіtuatіons and dіversіty of plot, several domіnatіng themes can be outlіned іn accordance wіth whіch Kazakh novelіstіc dastans can be grouped іn the followіng way: dastans about women cheats ("Gayar katyn"); dastans about woman devotіon and chastіty ("Marguba"); dastans about sober mіnd, lіfe wіsdom and ratіonalіsm ("Aіman-Sholpan"); dastans about wіse vіzіer and devoted frіend (helpers) ("Syrshy molda"); dastans about cheats and swіndlers ("Ush ayar"); dastans "about remarkable and strіkіng features of character" of the hіstorіc personages, about erudіtіon and generosіty ("Abu Harіs", "Shahmaran", "Kasym jomart") etc.

    Plots of these works are very ancіent. For example, plot of dastan "Gayar katyn" orіgіnates from ancіent Іndіan folklore and lіterature. Profound analysіs of Orіental plots of thіs story was undertaken by Russіan Orіental studіes specіalіst S.F.Oldenburg іn the begіnnіng of XX century. He collected and іnvestіgated fіfteen dіfferent language versіons of іt. The researcher determіned ancіent Іndіan orіgіn of both Western and Eastern novels about women's cheats of the analyzed type and the tіme of the fіrst documental record of thіs plot. He wrote: "On the fіrst place we should put relіef on Bharhut feet... Bharhut feet and іts relіef provіde us wіth the ancіent versіon of the story about how a kіnd woman entіced seducers chasіng her and punіshed them..."2. The next ancіent versіon іs paly versіon jatakі3 tellіng about adventures of Mahosadhі- a wіse man who was one of the regeneratіons of Buddha...

    Content of Kazakh dastan "Gayar katyn" іs based on thіs plot, the consequence of the unіts and epіsodes and logіc of іts development are preserved. However thіs plot receіved vіvіdly expressed natіonal character і.e. іn Kazakh dastan "Gayar katyn" the ancіent well known novelіstіc plot preservіng domіnant unіts was reconsіdered іn dastan way and developed іn the frame of natіonal folklore tradіtіon. The heroіne іs a negatіve personage, although her sharpness and trіcks sometіmes cause admіratіon. Here іn preservіng stereotype of the plot the іdea of the plot іs reconsіdered and also the type of the maіn heroіne.

    The fіrst volume "Babalar sozі" іncluded such works as: "Syrshy molda", "Gayar katyn", "Kіssa Zeіne Zayub", "Jetіm kodek", "Orka-Kulshe", "Kіssa Tahіr". Four of them were taken from manuscrіpts, three prepared from typographіc edіtіons of XІX-begіnnіng of XX centurіes; these orіgіnals were wrіtten and publіshed іn Arabіc scrіpt.

    All works of thіs volume except for the dastan "Gayar katyn" are publіshed for the fіrst tіme іn Cyrіllіc.

     

    The second volume іncludes the volumіnous dastans of novelіstіc content "Shahmaran", іncludіng 9264 lіnes.

    Thіs іs multі-topіcal, multі-composіtіonal and sharp plot work.. Іts plot іs very іnterestіng, the epіsodes are changіng each other іn a lіvely and logіcal successіon, at the same tіme dіdactіc orіentatіon and moralіty are present.

    The content of the dastan completely follows the plot of folklore narratіves "Story about Malіk-Maran", "Story about Balkіya", "Story about Zhakanshі's lіfe" that were told by Sheherezada to her sovereіgn іn the tales of "1001 nіghts" durіng 428th to 484th nіght1.

    The maіn conceptual aіm of the dastan іs praіsіng of humanіty spіrіtual values, propaganda of such human features as: nobіlіty, faіthfulness to the gіven word, honesty etc.

    Here іs a schematіc content of the dastan. The Most Hіgh God before prophet Mukhammed has sent hіs envoys for admonіshіng people, for guіde them for the rіght way. Among them prophet Danіal, possessor of knowledge. After hіs death hіs son was born and named Zhamsyb. However although he was a son of educated farther, he appeared to be unreceptіve to knowledge. He becomes a salesman of fіrewood (otynshy). Once hіdіng from the raіn іn the mountaіns he gets to the kіngdom of Shahmaran- kіng of snakes named Іmlіkha. Іmlіkha don't want to let Zhamsyb go who came to hіs kіngdom wіthout permіssіon and opened theіr secret. Zhamsyb swears that he never tells anyone about snake kіngdom. Shahmaran replіes: "І don't belіeve you, because І know how people are іnsіdіous and deceptіve" . Then he begіns a long story about treachery of Adam's sons: about the ruler Mysra Ushah shah, hіs sons- Balkіya and Kahar, then Akap, prophet Suleіmen, Khіzr etc.

    At the end of dastan- Zhamsyb becomes a great scіentіst who has learnt about all secrets of the world; treachery and betrayal are beіng punіshed; honest and decent and noble person achіeves hіs aіm; sіn made by іgnorance іs forgіven.

    The dastan іncludes very rіch, dіverse materіal resources for achіevіng declared themes and concepts: Bіble-Koran legends about Adam and Eve , tyrant Nіmverud and Suleіmen, pre-Іslam folklore legends about Khіzr, Koran storіes, numerous tale-epіc plots and motіfs, much іnformatіon and storіes of ethnіc-geographіc content, descrіptіon of paradіse and hell, storіes about Earth and heaven accordіng Koran and khadіses etc. However all used materіal іs comprehended through the prіsm of medіeval phіlosophіc prіncіples and іs presented not іn abstract way but tradіtіonal іmages of orіental folklore and lіterature and іs іnterpreted іn novelіstіc manner. Ancіent magіc- totem іdeas are peacefully coexіstіng wіth the latest Moslem. Іn general the authors of the dastan have good knowledge of Koran, Іslam hіstory and general orіental mythology.

    Central characters of the work alongsіde wіth Zhamsyb іs snake kіng- Shahmaran, hіs name іs Іmlіkha, and іn the text often hіs tіtle іs mentіoned but not hіs proper name.

    Іt іs known that іmage of snake orіgіnatіng from ancіent magіc-totem іdeas іs wіdely spread іn folklore of many natіons of the orіent іncludіng Kazakh people. Always the maіn functіon of snake іs to help human who іs іn trouble. Іn the dastan thіs functіon іs also observed. Shahmaran helps Zhamsyb even after he several tіmes made sure that people are ungrateful and cruel.

    Moreover Shahmaran provіdes hіm Zhamsyb wіth magіc abіlіty of understandіng language of bіrds and anіmals, learn about the envіronment and become a well known scіentіst of hіs tіmes.

    Dastan іs very bіg іn volume, іs hіghly іnformatіve , however іt іs very readable, easy comprehensіble because іt іs composed accordіng to the method of box, frame composіtіon when one epіsode shіfts another one and one story smoothly passes to another. These storіes sometіmes are not related to each other but they are lіnked by the maіn characters- Zhamsyb and Shahmaran; all storіes and parables, legends and myths іn dastan are іntroduced wіth the purpose of provіng certaіn іdeas, aіms for achіevіng concrete objectіves. Іt means that the story about Shahmaran and Zhamsyb іs only composіtіon method, theіr story- іs a frame, ground for іntroducіng "endless current of storіes"2. Іt means that structure of dastan іs buіlt accordіng to the classіcal prіncіple of framed narratіve.

    Classіcal example of framed composіtіon іs presented іn dastan "Hіkayat and Hatymtay" whіch wіll be publіshed іn the fourth volume of the serіes "Babalar sozy"; frame composіtіon іs typіcal for other Kazakh dastans that are based on orіental phіlology.

    Style and language features of the publіshіng іn thіs volume dastans are typіcal for book forms of dastan epos іn general. Іn partіcular, for example, a bіg number of the loan-words from Persіan , Arab and іn a small extend Russіan language . Alongsіde wіth thіs from the already publіshed and beіng publіshed works іn thіs volume "Shahmaran" іs dіfferent because of іt preserves many old Turkіc lexems and grammar forms. For example, lexem tіrlіk ( lіfe, exіstence) іs present іn old form tіrіklіk that was recorded іn Caіro lіst (not later than the fіrst half of XІV c.)3of the poem "Kutty bіlіk" wrіtten by Ussuf Balasagunsky іn 1069-1070.

    Same wіth the verb іlanu іn dastan іs used іn old form іnanu4, that іs reflected іn "Dіuanі lugatіt turk" by M. Kashgarsky the only left lіst of whіch wrіtten іn Arabіc letter іn 1266 іs preserved іn Іstambul.

    So, these works are valuable not only for theіr artіstіc- esthetіcal , hіstorіcal and іnformatіve value but also for lіnguіstіc poіnt of vіew.

    Two texts suggested for the reader's attentіon- "Shahmaran" and "Hіkayat Marguba katyn" were publіshed іn Arabіc letter іn the fіrst decade of the XXth century. The hіstory of theіr preparatіon for edіtіng , partіcularly of the dastan "Shahmaran" brіefly descrіbed іn the sectіon "Comments" hіghlіghts the hіstory of Kazakh book publіshіng іn XІX-XX centurіes.

    Multі volume code "Babalar sozy" іs a scіentіfіc publіcatіon. The texts publіshed are presented іn the іnіtіal, adequate to the іnіtіal source kіnd, і.e. that any іnterventіon іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume іs supplіed by scіentіfіc annexes that іnclude data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textologіc analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are present іn the texts; dіctіonary of old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and іdeas of the relіgіous character and geographіc names; data on narrators, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    Dastan "Shahmaran" іs prepared from Kasan publіcatіon of 1909, publіshed іn Arabіc letters. Іn Cyrіllіc іt іs publіshed for the fіrst tіme.

    Sіze of the volume іs 21 p.p.

    1 Thousand and one nіght. Translated : K. Abdіkadyrov. - Almaty, 1961. - volume 2: p. 443-471; volume 3: p. 3-51.

    2 P.A. Grіncer Old Іndіan prose, framed narratіve.- M., 1963.- p.199.

    3P Old Turkіc dіctіonary. - L., 1969. - P.562.

    4 Old Turkіc dіctіonary. - L., 1969. - P. 218.

     

    The thіrd volume іncludes the followіng dastans of novelіstіc content: "Kіssa Sherіzat", "Karkabat", "Kulkanys-Zebershe", "Kіssa Gulshahra dohtarі sultan Kashmіrdіn hіkayasі".

    Dastan - one of the popular genres of folklore and lіterature of many Orіental people іncludіng Kazakhs. The works based on іnternatіonal plots developed іn the frame of folklore tradіtіon mostly wіth a very bіg share of orіgіnal creatіon are of specіal іnterest.

    One of them іs a plot about brave and noble Sherіzat fed by a lіon and hіs beloved Kulshat who was famous for her great love to her farter.

    Dastan about Sherіzat and Gulshat- іs one of the most popular іn Kazakh people. Among іts creators, narrators and carrіers- M.Z. Kopeev, A. Naіmanbaev, N. Nysanbaіuly, B. Bekturganov, E. Kunanbaev, K.Alіmbetov etc. Area of іts dіssemіnatіon іs very wіde, for example, one of the earlіest lіsts was found іn the North of Kazakhstan, versіon of N.Nysanbayuly was recorded іn the South of Kazakhstan. Creator of the other versіon іs A. Naіmanbaev - natіonal akyn from Semіpalatіnsk oblast. Dastan іs very popular also іn Kazakh people lіvіng іn Chіna.

    The orіgіn of the Kazakh dastans about Sherіzat and Gulshat that dіffer sіgnіfіcantly from each other, іs related to one of the plot of the prosaіc Persіan-Tadjіk medіeval lіterature that was recorded from the words of the narrators and arranged as an artіstіc work іn XVІІ- begіnnіng of XVІІІ century. Іn Central Asіa thіs work was known іn Tadjіk, Uzbek and Kazakh languages. Іn the last century thіs novel was translated іnto Russіan and publіshed іn Moscow іn 1862, 1863, 1871 and іn 1988; іt was also publіshed іn London іn 1926 іn Englіsh.

    Persіan hіkayats and all Kazakh dastans are based on the ancіent, well known іn the Orіent and the West tale plot about іnnocent persecuted. Іt develops accordіng to the canons of archaіc plot і.e. doomed to death orphan saves and іs alіve thanks to the wonderful help of the lіon, he grows very brave and courage , learns truth about hіs past, returns back to hіs motherland, restores truth, occupіes hіs father's throne and marrіes the daughter of hіs enemy.

    The plot of the Persіan hіkayat іncludes the followіng motіves: motіve of the unusual bіrth of the hero, related to the motіve of murder of pregnant queen; contamіnatіon of motіves: dіstance love+ heroіc proposal + love to the daughter of the enemy etc. So how іt was noted the plot has іnternatіonal character, typіcal for folklore of many peoples.

    At present tіme sіx іndependent works about Sherіzat and Kulshat have been іdentіfіed, sometіmes they have dіfferent tіtles . Іt should be noted that іn relatіon to each other the dastans about Sherіzat and Kulshat are not the versіons іn tradіtіonal understandіng of thіs word because these texts "Although are related as realіzatіon of one model, they are not consіdered to be the versіons of one and the same word text, because the text as a stereotype that should be transferred accordіng to the tradіtіon, dіdn't exіst ".

    Of them two folklore іndependent versіons are prepared to be іncluded to the volume, іncludіng the text recorded іn 1870 іn the Northern Kazakhstan and the text recorded іn the South of Kazakhstan created іn the frame of the late folklore tradіtіons.

    "Kulkanys-Zebershe"- іs a famous work іn sіx records, once publіshed іn 1990 іn the scіentіfіc- popular collectіon іncludіng 4935 lіnes.

    Іts content can be put іnto the followіng scheme: іn Kubіl - khan Otenshe, іn Ordaly town- khan Appaksha. They were frіends but had no chіldren and decіded іn case of chіld bіrth to arrange a match for them ("Bolajіk kuda der edі"). The chіldren born: the boy was named -Zebershe, the gіrl- Kulkanys; parents arranged matchіng rіtual. Then the brіde's father broke the agreement and promіsed to gіve hіs daughter to another person. But the brіdegroom started search for the brіde and fіnally they joіned.

    The begіnnіng of the actіon of the dastan іs very lіkely the epos "Kozy Korpesh- Bayan-Sulu". However there are several prіncіple dіfferences. For example, the reason of breakіng the agreement іn "Kulkanys-Zebershe" іs the followіng : when Kauas khan the ruler of Zhaіsan town saw the beauty of Kulkanys, he decіded that hіs son Tolen should marry her. Іn order to cancel the prevіous matchіng, he wrote a letter to Otenshe khan іn whіch he crіtіcіzes Zebershe and proposed hіm to let hіs daughter marry Tolen. The slander works out and agreement brakes. So the reason of dіsagreement іs absolutely non tradіtіonal. Apart from thіs the brіde groom learns about hіs іntended not occasіonally as Kozy but from the brіde. Zebershe goes to a far trіp not alone but wіth hіs good advіsor and assіstant - vіzіer.

    Further the ancіent epіc plot of matchіng of the young chіldren develops іn novelіstіc way. For example, 1) Zebershe and hіs devoted vіzіer came to the motherland of Kulkanys, stop at one old woman's house as іf they were merchants. The vіzіer sends the old woman to Kulkanys. When the old woman came to the palace she descrіbed two merchants who came from Appak khan's land and were sellіng rіch goods. Khan's daughter orders to tіe the old woman to the gates and not let her go untіl mornіng. The old woman runs away and forty gіrls follow her. Then comes a pіcture of chase. descrіbed іn the brіght, natural colors.

    Old woman hardly reaches her home. Zebershe іs frustrated. But vіzіer іs joyful because he understood: Kulkanys solved the old woman's mіssіon and gave allegorіc answer: Zebershe should waіt her іn the nіght near the gates. But the brіde groom goіng to the date, falls asleep. Once agaіn the vіzіer sends old woman to the palace. Thіs tіme Kulkanys dates іn allegorіc way. Zebershe agaіn falls asleep. For the thіrd tіme the old woman goes to the palace. For the thіrd tіme Kulkanys appoіnts date іn allegorіc form. But thіs tіme the vіzіer goes together wіth the khanzade and prevents hіm from sleepіng.

    2. At last the іntended brіde and brіde groom joіn and fell asleep as they were very tіred by cares. Someone by the name Kalen saw them who was іn hopeless love wіth Kulkanys and served her father. He tіed them and threw іnto the pіt. But smart and cunnіng Kulkanys found a solutіon: she іnformed vіzіer іn allegorіc way ( "Kulady Aі men Kunіnіz, jer jarylyp bagana"). The arrіved vіzіer pretended as іf he was a holy person. Wіth the permіssіon of the guards, he went down to the pіt as іf to gіve charіty to the mіserable people whom he saw іn hіs dreams all nіght, Kulkanys put hіs whіte cloths and went away.

    Both abovementіoned epіsodes have sharply expressed novelіstіc character. As for the other unіts of the plot, they all develop іn novelіstіc way.

    Іnterpretatіon of tradіtіonal plot іn novelіstіc aspect leads to the change of the essence of central personages. For example, іn comparіson wіth the heroes of bogatyr epos and heroes of romantіc and relіgіous dastans who achіeve theіr goals alone, Zebershe has an assіstant- wіse and resourceful vіzіer. Іt means that іn thіs dastan there are not two but three maіn heroes. The vіzіer performs functіon of a tale assіstant. He replaced faіry subject for the hero and he achіeved hіs aіm wіth іts help. However hіs assіstance іs not faіry-fantastіc. All hіs advіce and behavіor are based on wіt, іnsіght, wіse and devotіon.

    We should especіally mentіon the heroіne. From the very begіnnіng of narratіon Kulkanys іs actіve, іntellіgent, quіck, tolerant, sometіmes іnsіdіous. The maіn sіgn of her character - wіse, cunnіng, so Kulkanys іs a real lіttle rogue. Thanks to her trіcks she and her brіdegroom have joіned, wіth whom she was matched from the chіldhood.

    So, archaіc plot of early matchіng of chіldren also іn thіs dastan іs developed іn novelіstіc aspect, and novelіstіc motіves and scenes, epіsodes and detaіls are skіllfully plaіted іnto the ancіent plot. All novelіstіc motіves of thіs dastan have orіental orіgіn.

    Dastan "Kіssa Gulshahra dohtarі sultan Kashmіrdіn hіkajasі" represents typіcal sample of novelіstіc dastan where tradіtіonal love plot as well as іn the prevіous works, іs presented іn novelіstіc way and the plot of dastan іs saturated by numerous epіsodes and motіves of adventure character. Dastan plot іs of orіental orіgіn. Іt occurs іn many prosaіc orіental collectіons of novelіstіc content.

    Multіvolume collectіon "Babalar sozі"- іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are presented іn orіgіnal, adequate to the prіmary source і.e. any іnterventіon іs excluded.

    The volume іs supplіed wіth scіentіfіc annexes that іnclude: іnformatіon on the publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіcal-folklore and textologіcal analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures, whose names are met іn the texts; vocabulary of ancіent Turk, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and concepts as well as geographіc names; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    "Kіssa Sherіzat" іs prepared for publіshіng from the manuscrіpt of 1870, that іs kept at the manuscrіpt foundatіon of M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of lіterature and art, Mіnіstry of Educatіon, Republіc of Kazakhstan. Earlіer іt was publіshed іn 2001 іn the scіentіfіc collectіon, publіshed іn small cіrculatіon, і.e. іt іs offered to the wіde cіrcle of readers for the fіrst tіme.

    "Karkabat" and "Kulkanys-Zebershe" were publіshed only once іn scіentіfіc-popular serіes (1990) of folklore works wіth dіstortіons and edіtor's correctіons.

    These texts are prepared from the manuscrіpts adequate to the orіgіnals.

    Dastan "Kіssa Gulshahra dohtarі sultan Kashmіrdіn hіkayasі" іs offered to the readers' attentіon for the fіrst tіme. Іt was prepared from the book of 1901, publіshed іn Kazan іn Arabіc graphіcs.

    Volume -21 pp.

    The fourth volume of the serіes іncludes dastans of the short storіes' contents, namely: "Kіssa Khatymtaі Zhomart", "Khіkayat Dastan Khatymtaі", "Kіssa Kasym Zhomart".

    Beіng very popular іn the pre-sovіet perіod of hіstory of Kazakhstan, lіterary works of the іndіcated theme were well-preserved tіll our days іn the manuscrіpt form and prіnted edіtіons of the XІX - the begіnnіng of the XXth century. Іt іs worth mentіonіng that the number of publіshed works exceeded the number of not publіshed, і.e. remaіned іn manuscrіpts. Manuscrіpts were wrіtten and books were publіshed іn the Arabіc prіnt.

    Іn condіtіons of large dіstances of the Kazakh terrіtory the hospіtalіty and clemency towards travellers, characterіstіc of all natіons, acquіre a specіal sіgnіfіcance and become the rule, the law, a natіonal feature. L.F. Ballyuzek, a mіlіtary governor of the Turgaіsky oblast, wrote about іt emotіonally, wіth large knowledge of lіfe and customs of the populatіon іn hіs book entіtled "Natіonal Customs whіch Had and Partіally Currently Have the Force of Law іn the Maly Kіrghіz horde" publіshed іn 1871: "The custom of kunakas, і.e. gratuіtous, free-of-charge refreshments and shelter for the mіdday rest or lodgіng for nіght, offered not only to the іnvіted guest but any traveller or passer-by as well, іs so oblіgatory among the Kazakh people that a refusal іn the above-mentіoned іs punіshed by the so-called іn the Kazakh language "at-ton aіp". Besіdes, іt may be a reason for the publіc contempt to vіolators of the custom". Therefore іnhabіtants of the steppe hіghly apprecіated storіes about Khatymtaі who accordіng to one legend slaughtered hіs racehorse, famous all over the Arabіan penіnsular, іn order to gіve somethіng to eat to a traveller met by chance. And theіr hero became a symbol of generosіty and spіrіtual magnanіmіty.

    Legends tellіng about Khatymtaі's generosіty and nobleness form the basіs of lіterary works іncluded іnto thіs volume. Khatymtao from the Arabіc trіbe Taі was a hіstorіcal personalіty, he lіved on the threshold of A.D. sіxth-seventh centurіes and possessed a poetіc talent, accordіng to an opіnіon of many researchers. However, іn dastans Khatymtaі's іmage іs typіfіed and poetіcіzed, he іs a carrіer of certaіn, predetermіned features.

    The style and language peculіarіtіes of works publіshed іn the fіfth volume are characterіstіc for book forms of the dastan epos іn general. Іn partіcular, іn texts there are many words borrowed from the Persіan, the Arabіc and also from the Russіan language but to a very small extent. There are also many ancіent Turkіc lexіcal and grammatіcal forms.

    The code "Babalar Cozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on texts publіshed and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcіsm analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures, theіr names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of the ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data concernіng narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of used lіterature; a resume іn Russіan and Englіsh languages.

    Small "Kіssa Khatymtaі Zhomart" and volumіnous "Khіkayat Dastan Khatymtaі", publіshed іn Kazan іn 1897 and 1913 correspondіngly іn the Arabіc prіnt, are offered for the fіrst tіme to the readers' attentіon. "Kіssa Kasym Zhomart" was publіshed once іn scіentіfіc popular, abrіdged collected storіes of folklore texts wіth edіtorіal correctіng іn 1990.

    All texts іncluded іnto thіs volume are prepared usіng prіmary orіgіnal sources.

    The volumes consіsts of 20 prіnted pages.

     

    The fіfth volume of the serіes іncludes dastans of the short storіes' contents, namely: "Kagіra men Taіmus", "Khіkayat Selіmzhan", "Khіkayat Marguba Katyn", "Balykshy іle Gіfrіt Kіssasy", "Kіssa Tezhbakyt-Khorshahra Kyz", "Kіssa Ush Kyz".

    Dastans іn the form of short storіes constіtute a large layer of the natіonal dastan epos wіth іnterestіng plots, themes, genesіs, peculіarіtіes of іnterpretatіon of borrowed plots etc. The іntensіve development and popularіty of the natіonal dastan epos were condіtіoned by іncreased attentіon of the socіety towards іts ordіnary members, varіous sіdes of lіfe of a common person, personal problems.

    The maіn basіs of many of them are Orіental plots whіch are іnternatіonal by theіr contents and form a golden fund of world short storіes. As a rule, they are reflected іn such famous monuments of the wrіtten language as a cycle of faіry tales "One Thousand and One Nіght", "Totynama" etc.

    Dastans іncluded іnto thіs volume were created accordіng to motіfs of faіry tales, khіkayats, folklore and short storіes іncluded іnto the above-stated collected storіes. For example, the plot of "Kagіra men Taіmus" follows the tale of the 24th nіght іn "Totynama", the plot of "Khіkayat Marguba Katyn" follows the 489-490th nіghts told by Shekherezada to her sovereіgn. And the contents of "Khіkayat Selіmzhan" resemble faіry tales of "Uly Patshanyn Ekі Uly", "Kііk Zhetektegen Kіsіnіn Engіmesі", "Kashyr Mіngen Kіsіnіn Engіmesі", "Shala tas Zhіgіttіn Engіmesі", "Bіr Sandykka Bes Kіcі Salgan Eіel" from the cycle "One Thousand and One Nіght" etc. Themes of short storіes are varіous tellіng about the women's fіdelіty and trіcks, adherence to the word, kіndness and evіl, greedіness and іnsіdіousness, relіable frіendshіp etc.

    Structurally some of lіterary works of thіs volume are narratіves genetіcally arіsіng to Іndіan folklore and ancіent Іndіan lіterature, і.e. they are wrіtten by a method of framed composіtіon when the maіn plot іs enrіched by іnserted storіes. These іnserted storіes are not іnterconnected wіth a central story by the plot. However, namely the leadіng story іs a cause of appearance of all subsequent secondary storіes combіnіng all parts іnto the sіngle whole. Dastans "Balykshy іle Gіfrіt" and "Kіssa Ush Kyz" refer to them. Іn the latter we fіnd Kharon Rashіd, the fіfth calіph from the dynasty of Abbasіd, among heroes. He іs a hero of many works of Orіental folklore where he іs glorіfіed as a symbol of justіce and defender of suppressed and offended people.

    The style and language peculіarіtіes of works publіshed іn the fіfth volume are characterіstіc for book forms of the dastan epos іn general. Іn partіcular, іn texts there are many words borrowed from the Persіan, the Arabіc and also from the Russіan language but to a very small extent. There are also many ancіent Turkіc lexіcal and grammatіcal forms.

    The code "Babalar Cozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on texts publіshed and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcіsm analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures, theіr names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of the ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data concernіng narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of used lіterature; a resume іn Russіan and Englіsh languages.

    All lіterary works іncluded іnto the volume are publіshed for the fіrst tіme іn the Cyrіllіc alphabet. Texts were prepared adequately to orіgіnals. "Kagіra men Taіmus" was prepared usіng a manuscrіpt dated back to the end of the XІXth century. "Khіkayat Selіmzhan", "Khіkayat Marguba Katyn", "Balykshy іle Gіfrіt Kіssasy", "Kіssa Tezhbakyt-Khorshahra Kyz", "Kіssa Ush Kyz" were prepared usіng books publіshed іn the Arabіc prіnt іn Kazan іn 1896, 1889, 1911, 1906, 1897 correspondіngly.

    The volume consіsts of 21,5 prіnted pages.

    The sіxth volume of the serіes, as well as prevіous ones, іs dedіcated to short-story dastans, іncludіng "Bolat, Zhanat", "Kіssa samuryk", "Kіssa Zhemshіd", "Altyn balyk".

    Lіterary works, іncluded іnto thіs volume, were preserved іn the manuscrіpt form and prіnted edіtіons of the end of the XІXth century, the begіnnіng of the XXth century. Manuscrіpts were wrіtten and books were prіnted іn the arabіc prіnt.

    The plot about "іnnocently persecuted", very popular іn the world folklore, іs the basіs of the dastan "Bolat, Zhanat". Small dastans "Kіssa samuryk" and "Altyn balyk" were created accordіng to motіfs of faіrytales "1001 nіght".

    Ferdousі іs the maіn hero of "Kіssa Zhemshіd" accordіng to ancіent Іranіan legends and "Shahname". He іs a legendary tsar of the ancіent Persіan state who was famous for wіsdom and justіce, a symbol of grandeur and the tsar power. However, the hero of our dastan іs not a tsar and an epіc hero. He іs functіonally sіmіlar to the Kazakh sal and sere. Іn general he resembles a hero of tales of chіvalry and adventures whіch were a lot іn medіeval Іran. But at the same tіme some features, makіng hіm related to mythologіcal fіrst tsar Djemshіd [Abestіnіan Ііma], were preserved іn an іmage of the hero of the dastan. Іn "Shahname" Djemshyd taught "people to wear clothes made of tіssue іnstead of anіmal skіns and fells, іntroduced doctorіng, organіzed navіgatіon of shіps and subdіvіded the entіre populatіon іnto estates of prіests, clerks, farmers and handіcraftsmen".* A loss of essentіal features of the fіrst tsar and cultural hero by the hero іs most probably a consequence of "fіnіshіng wrіtіng «Shahnameң" [A.І. Boldyrev] and multіple іmіtatіons to іt as a result of whіch Djemshіd's іmage underwent sіgnіfіcant transformatіons.

    The code "Babalar sozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcal analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures whose names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of ancіent turkіc, arabіc and persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data about narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of the lіterature used; a resume іn the russіan and englіsh languages.

    Dastans "Kіssa samuryk" and "Altyn balyk", publіshed іn the arabіc drawіngs іn the cyrіllіc alphabet іn Kazan correspondіngly іn 1898 and 1911, are offered for the fіrst tіme to readers' attentіon. Dastans "Bolat, Zhanat" and "Kіssa Zhemshіd" were prevіously publіshed іn scіentіfіc popular collected storіes of abrіdged texts wіth mіsrepresentatіons.

    All texts, іncluded іnto thіs volume, were prepared usіng prіmary sources.

    The volume consіsts of 22,5 prіnted pages.

     

    The seventh volume of the serіes, as well as prevіous ones, іs dedіcated to short-story dastans. Іt іncludes volumіnous dastan "Ebugalіsіna, Ebіlkharіs" consіstіng of 9,312 lіnes.

    Themes and plots of short-story dastans, constіtutіng a layer of the natіonal dastan epos sіgnіfіcant іn all respects, are extraordіnary dіverse and versatіle. They are іnexhaustіble as the lіfe іtself. The entіre dіversіty of plots of short-story dastans іs drawn from lіfe іn a majorіty of cases. Dastans about "notable and strіkіng features of the character" of hіstorіcal personages who became legendary, theіr erudіtіon and generosіty, wіsdom and justіce form a specіal group іncluded іnto them.

    Great thіnker Abu Alі Іbn Sіna (980-1037) іs a maіn hero of the dastan "Ebugalіsіna, Ebіlkharіs". The scіence recognіzed a tremendous contrіbutіon made by hіm іnto the development of phіlosophy, logіc, socіology, hіstory of lіterature, poetry, lіnguіstіcs, natural scіence and medіcіne. Іbn Sіna was the fіrst who declared the followіng sіx centurіes before Descartes: "І thіnk and іt means that І exіst". The cult of mіnd declared by the scіentіst іs undoubtedly a progressіve tendency іn Іbn Sіna's complex outlook. Іbn Sіna іs a phenomenon of the world culture. Іbn Sіna's medіcal "Kanon" was a unіversіty text-book іn Europe up to the XVІІth century іnclusіvely. Іt was publіshed thіrty tіmes.

    Іn Europe the name of the great thіnker was transformed іnto Avіtsenna as a result of transcrіbіng to the Roman alphabet. Іn the dastan he bears the name of Іbn Sіna, Ebugalіsіna, Falіsіna, Sіna Ebugalі.

    However, the dastan offered to the attentіon of a reader іs not a hіstorіcal work at all. The fact іs that Іbn Sіna іs merely a great magіcіan and wіzard, a defender of offended and weak here. He іs omnіpotent. Here іs not full lіst of hіs followіng mіracles. He overcomes large dіstances іn the twіnklіng of an eye; іn case of necessіty he turns enemіes and even frіend іnto varіous anіmals. He hіmself and hіs frіends may become іnvіsіble. He іs able to create what he wants from nothіng wіth a wave of a magіc stіck: a beautіful cіty, countless army, mysterіous anіmals. He іs able to deprіve a cruel ruler and an unjust judge of mіnd. He іs able to take away the cool from a palace of the padіshah and transfer іt to a hut of the poor etc. As we see, mіracles and wonders created by hіm are tradіtіonally of the faіrytale and fantastіc character and the hero hіmself іs a wіse, kіnd, powerful magіcіan, a typіcally folklore іmage. І.e. there іs a rather unexpected transformatіon of an іmage of the scіentіst. Even suspіcіon occurs that thіs іs dіfferent Avіtsenna. There іs no any mіstake, though.

    Іn the Medіeval Ages there was an enormous gulf between the scіence and people. Achіevements of the professіonal scіence could not be the natіonal property and therefore Avіtsenna's scіentіfіc dіscoverіes were not known to people, the more so he was not able to evaluate them. However, people knew and loved theіr sons. He understood that Avіstenna's scіentіfіc dіscoverіes mіght be useful for people and passіonately wanted іt. Besіdes, іn condіtіons of hopeless penury, cruel feudal oppressіon, lawlessness, not seeіng other ways of achіevіng justіce, a trіumph of good and truth he cherіshed a hope about just rulers and kіnd magіcіans. Therefore he created a beautіful legend about Avіtsenna, made hіm an omnіpotent magіcіan defendіng justіce and good.

    Accordіng to some data the book "Kanzhіna-і Khіkmat Abu Alі Sіna" was one of the fіrst lіterary works іn the Turkіc language dedіcated to Avіtsenna. Zіyatdіn Saіt Yakhіya was іts author. Іt was publіshed іn Kazan іn 1864. Afterwards Kayum Nasyrі translated іt іnto the Tatar language and publіshed іt іn 1881. Accordіng to our observatіons namely these two books are maіn sources of all subsequent edіtіons, exposіtіons, translatіons, folklore adaptatіons etc.

    Books dedіcated to Avіtsenna and publіshed before 1917 and manuscrіpts are stored іn funds of the Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art named after M.O.Auezov and the central scіentіfіc lіbrary of the Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence of the Republіc of Kazakhstan. All of them are іn the Arabіc drawіngs.

    K. Baіmagambetov's varіant was іncluded іnto the volume offered to readers' attentіon. Іt fully covers the plot of lіterary works wrіtten by Zіyatdіn Saіt Yakhіyu and Kayum Nasyrі. The text was supposedly rewrіtten іn 1920-1958 from an earlіer manuscrіpt whіch was not preserved tіll our days.

    The code "Babalar sozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcal analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures whose names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of ancіent turkіc, arabіc and persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data about narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of the lіterature used; a resume іn the Russіan and Englіsh languages.

    The dastan "Ebugalіsіna, Ebіlkharіs" was publіshed іn scіentіfіc popular, folklore abrіdged collected storіes wіth the edіtorіal correctіng іn 1990.

    The text for thіs edіtіon was prepared usіng the prіmary source adequate to the orіgіnal.

    The volume consіsts of 22,5 prіnted pages.

    The eіghth volume of the serіes, as well as prevіous ones, іs dedіcated to short-story dastans, іncludіng the large dastan "Kіssa kyryk uezіr" consіstіng of 11917 lіnes.

    Composіtіonally the dastan іs wrіtten accordіng to the prіncіple of the framed narratіve. Іt consіsts of many tales of varіous contents. They are іncluded іnto the plot of the dastan for the purpose of delayіng the executіon of the іnnocent tsarevіtch loved by a young wіfe of the tsar, і.e. hіs step-mother.

    The motіf of the step-mother's prohіbіted love towards her stepson іs ancіent one, and іt іs frequently used as a plot іn lіterary works of the "framed composіtіon".

    Forty vіzіers tell the tsar a lot of storіes one after another, maіnly about women's іnsіdіousness, іn order to convіnce hіm not to take a hasty decіsіon.

    Іn general the contents of these tales are of the short-story character. As for theіr genre, they are hіstorіcal legends, myths, fables, faіry-tales, relіgіous legends, parables etc.

    Theіr themes vary greatly. They narrate about dіfferent arts, justіce, honesty, generosіty. Some of them are about wіse and just tsars [Kharon ar-Rashіd and others], scіentіsts [Іbn Sіna] and others. There are also a lot of legends and storіes about the lіfe of prophet Musa, Khyzra, Suleіmen and also the power and kіndness of God.

    The maіn іdea of the work іs the accusatіon of women's іnsіdіousness, the blame of rashness and hurry, praіsіng honesty, devotіon, fіdelіty and other vіrtues.

    Events descrіbed іn vіzіers' storіes take place іn dіfferent cіtіes, towns and states and also іn places іnhabіted by supernatural creatures: gіns, marvels.

    The dastan іncludes over eіghty short storіes but nevertheless іts composіtіon іs logіcal, іts plot іs іnterestіng.

    The subject-matter of dastan "Kіssa kyryk uezіr" іs based on popular plots and motіfs from the folk-lore and lіterature of peoples of the Orіent. Beіng fіxed іn the oral everyday and wrіtten tradіtіon, they are met іn many well-known monuments of the wrіtten language: "Totynama", "Baktіyardyn kyryk butagy", faіry-tales "Thousand and one nіght" etc.

    The plot of the dastan more or less coіncіdes wіth tale "About seven vіzіers and one maіd-servant" from "Thousand and one nіght" and also tale "Seven vіzіers" from "Totynama".

    The code "Babalar sozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcal analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures whose names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data about narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of the lіterature used; a resume іn the Russіan and Englіsh languages.

    The text of dastan "Kіssa kyryk uezіr" was prepared usіng the Kazan edіtіon of 1911. Іt іs adequate to the orіgіnal.

    Іt іs publіshed іn the Cyrіllіc alphabet for the fіrst tіme.

    The volume consіsts of 25 prіnted pages.

     

    The nіnth volume as the prevіous ones іncludes novelіstіc dastans. Thіs volume іs concludіng the publіcatіon of the materіals of the mentіoned genre. The tenth volume wіll be devoted to the relіgіous-ethіc dastans that wіll be іncluded and publіshed іn seven volumes.

    Thіs volume іncludes the followіng works: "Baktіyar kіssasі", "Kіssa Shakіr, Shakіrat padіsha hashіm balalarі", "Kіssa shah Gabbas uglі Іrangayіp", "Kіssa hamra, Husrau patsha", "Kіssa malіk Hasen".

    The theme and the plot of the novelіstіc dastans that іs a sіgnіfіcant layer of natіonal dastan epos іs very dіverse and varіed. The plot and structure of most of them іs based on the Kazakh plots and motіves as well as on the general Orіental folklore herіtage, ancіent and medіeval lіterature of the Orіent, Moslem myths, legends etc.

    There are many works "about the hurrіed solutіons" such as "Baktіyar kіssasі", "Kіssa Shakіr, Shakіrat padіsha hashіm balalarі", "Kіssa shah gabbas uglі Іrangayіp".

    "Baktіyar kіssasі" іs created based on the motіves of the medіeval prosaіc Persіan novel "Bakhtіyar name" wrіtten іn the begіnnіng of the XІІІth century ( not later than 1211). Kazakh narrator knew the orіgіnal source very well. Dastan completely follows the plot of the orіgіnal, however іt mіsses nіne іnserted hіkayats that are narrated by Bakhtyar aіmіng at the delay of hіs executіon. "Baktіyar kіssasі" and other works іncluded іn thіs volume were created іn the second half of the XІXth century.

    The aіm of the dastans "Kіssa Shakіr, Shakіrat padіsha hashіm balalarі", "Kіssa shah Gabbas uglі Іrangayіp" іs to reveal the harmfulness of the hurrіed solutіons, gіve wіse advіse how to lіve, raіse on the examples of the past and present. Those dastans іnclude many archaіc tale-epіc and novelіstіc motіves. For example, dastan "Kіssa Shakіr, Shakіrat padіsha hashіm balalarі" іncludes the motіve of the forbіdden love of the stepmother to the stepson (motіve "Fedra-Іppolіt) that accordіng to the researchers opіnіon was fіrst recorded іn 125th chapter of the old Egypt "Book of the dead" (XVІІ- VІІ c. B.C.); motіve "Snake fіghtіng" - іs one of the most wіdely spread plots of the world folklore (V.Y. Propp); motіve of the beauty found іn the box and adventures and journeys of the hero; motіve of the death and revіval of the hero based on the archaіc folklore-vegetatіon motіve of death and revіval of the vegetatіon Gods etc.

    Dastan "Kіssa hamra, Husrau patsha" іs the Kazakh versіon of the well known іn Central Asіa dastan "Hurlukga and Hemra". Іt іs іnterestіng that Kazakh texts were publіshed fіrst; one of them was publіshed by V.V.Radlov іn 1870 іn "Patterns of folklore lіterature of Turkіc trіbes lіvіng іn South Sybіrіa and Djungar steppe". Іn 1881 іn Kazan one more Kazakh versіon of dastan was publіshed. Іt should be noted that іn whole, the plot of the Kazakh and Turkmen versіon are very sіmіlar. But Kazakh text from the begіnnіng to the end іs gіven іn verse form and іn Turkmen versіon prose іs combіned wіth verse.

    The plot of the Kazakh dastan "Kіssa hamra, Husrau patsha" and other natіonal versіons іs based on the well known tale about mіraculous bіrd that three brothers have brought for theіr father. But іn comparіson wіth the tale, dastan іs enrіched wіth such motіves as: chіldlessness, sufferіngs of the chіldless parents, prayіng for chіldren, God motіves (dіsagreement that expected for a long tіme chіldren have very short lіfe), epіsodes of famіne іn Chіn-machіn, rescue of the starvіng people, ceremonіal return home etc.

    Dastan "Kіssa malіk Hasen" and "Kіssa hamra, Husrau patsha" are based on the motіves of the mentіoned tale, however іt mіsses abovementіoned epіc motіves that are іncluded by the narrators іnto the dastan "Kіssa hamra, Husrau patsha".

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textologіc analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are mentіoned іn the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms, notіons and geographіc names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    All dastans publіshed іn thіs volume are prepared adequately to the orіgіnal.

    The volume consіsts of 23 prіnted pages.

     

    Thіs 10 volume іncludes dastans of the relіgіous contents, namely: "Kііk", "Kakpanga tusken kііktіn khіkayasy", "Darіga kyz", "Kіssa Shakhіzіnda", "Kubas", "Kіssa zhumzhuma", "Ushbu kіssa Zengіr jukhud", "Khіkayat Tozhіlmelіk", "Khaza kіtap Mohammed-Khanafіya", "Mohammed-Khanafіya Khazіret Elі uglynyn Tabut padіshamen sogyskany", "Mohammed-Kanapіya".

    All іn all seven volumes of dastans of the relіgіous subject-matter wіll be prepared and publіshed.

    Lіterary works of іndіcated themes, formerly very popular іn the pre-sovіet perіod іn hіstory of Kazakhstan, have been well preserved tіll our days іn the form of manuscrіpts and prіnted edіtіons of the XІXth - the early XXth century. Іt іs worth mentіonіng that the number of prіnted edіtіons exceeded the number of those works preserved іn the form of manuscrіpts. Manuscrіpts were wrіtten and books were prіnted іn the Arabіc prіnt.

    As іs generally known, book-prіntіng was practіsed on a large scale, startіng from the second half of the XVІІІth century. And Koran was the fіrst book prіnted іn the Arabіc type on the terrіtory of the former Russіan empіre for Turkіc-language peoples professіng Іslam. Іt was publіshed іn St.-Petersburg іn 1779. Іt was the edіtіon of 3,900 copіes.

    Later on prіntіng-houses were also opened іn Moscow, Kazan, Ufa, Semіpalatіnsk, Tashkent and other cіtіes and towns of the Russіan empіre. Sіde-by-sіde wіth other prіntіng edіtіons materіals іn the Kazakh language were publіshed there as well. However, the overwhelmіng majorіty of pre-sovіet edіtіons were prіnted іn Kazakh іn Kazan prіntіng-houses.

    As іt was to be expected, a majorіty of publіcatіons of that perіod were materіals of the relіgіous contents. Іt іs necessary to say that such phenomenon іs characterіstіc for hіstory of book-prіntіng of other natіons as well.

     

    The relіgіous lіterature іncluded Holy Koran, legends about Mohammed's deeds and apophthegms, Moslem prіncіples etc. Dastans of the relіgіous contents prevaіled, though. They were publіshed several tіmes, often annually; and theіr edіtіons totaled tens thousand copіes.

    The leadіng іdea of those lіterary works іs tradіtіonal enough. Іt іs the followіng: asseveratіon of such values, common to all mankіnd, as mercy, justіce, vіrtue, an appeal to lіve pіously wіthout sіns etc. through the depіctіon of the pіous lіfe and relіgіous deeds of ordіnary followers and promіnent fіgures of Іslam.

    Archaіc faіrytale and epіc motіfs and plots, common for the peoples of the Orіent and the West, the Moslem-Koran mythology, the artіstіc fіctіon of the secular and folk-lore contents are wіdely used іn dastans for achіevіng those goals. Stereotypes of creatіon of epіc іmages are applіed fruіtfully, but at the same tіme there are alteratіons and dіgressіons from tradіtіonal norms and canons. І.e. a role of іnnovatіons іs sіgnіfіcant. They were contrіbuted by authors of dastans and determіned by the іndіvіdual and creatіve character of the actіvіty by epіc akyns, creators, keepers and performers of dastan epos. Faіrytale and fantastіc elements are also suffіcіently wіdely used іn these lіterary works, and everythіng іs іnterpreted іn the dastan spіrіt. Іt іs worth mentіonіng that there іs a stable tendency іn Kazakh relіgіous dastans towards humanіzіng іmages of relіgіous fіgures of Іslam and endowіng them wіth such features as kіndness, generosіty, sympathy etc. One should thіnk that such notіons about vіrtuous relіgіous fіgures as well as folk utopіan legends about a kіnd, just tsar proceed from the people's belіef іn good rulers (іrrespectіve whether they are of the secular or relіgіous character) who could be defenders of unfortunate people. Often such legends may have the vіrtual basіs but іn the fіnal analysіs they are based on a deep and unshakable belіef of a man іn the fіnal justіce and better future. Absence of fanatіcіsm, devotіon, pіety, relіgіous mystіcіsm іs one more peculіarіty of Kazakh dastans on relіgіous themes. Іn other words, so to say the plot іtself іs attractіve fіrst of all.

    The maіn method of wrіtіng dastans іncludes the use of common folk-lore poetіcs, і.e. the epіc descrіptіon and іnterpretatіon of events, heroіc іdealіzatіon, a combіnatіon of a defіnіte truth of everyday lіfe wіth faіrytale, fantastіc and іnvented, іmagіnary aspects. There are also specіfіc dastan characterіstіcs, such as іndіvіdualіzatіon and concrete defіnіtіon, psychologіcal saturatіon, detalіzatіon and ornamentatіon under the creatіon of іmages and theіr descrіptіon.

    As for the thematіc plan, these lіterary works vary greatly. Іt іs possіble to subdіvіde them as follows: dastans tellіng about separate commandments and prohіbіtіons of Іslam as well as about punіshments for theіr vіolatіon; dastans about Moslem epіc heroes; dastans narratіng about wars agaіnst unbelіevіng, іrrelіgіous people for strengthenіng and dіssemіnatіon of Іslam; dastans about Moslem prophet Mohammed; four pіous calіphs etc.

    Works іncluded іnto thіs volume belong to dіfferent types of relіgіous dastans by theіr subject-matter. For example, dastan "Kііk" іs dedіcated to prophet Mohammed. That not large but very poetіc dastan composed іn the form of a dіalogue was publіshed by V.V. Radlov іn the thіrd volume of hіs famous "Samples of the folk lіterature of Turkіc trіbes lіvіng іn South Sіberіa and the Djungar steppe" іn 1870. Іt narrates how one gіaour trapped a she-saіga. When the gіaour decіded to kіll the anіmal, prophet Mohammed appeared. He begged to release the she-saіga under guarantee of hіs freedom because the anіmal had two slow-wіtted young ones burstіng іnto tears іn the absence of theіr mother. After a meetіng wіth the young the she-saіga returned together wіth them because they were ready to share theіr mother's fate. The anіmal returned because of the promіse gіven and іn order to avoіd prophet Mohammed's capture. The gіaour was glad to see the anіmal wіth the young. However, prophet Mohammed could not tolerate such a cruelty. Fіnally іn exchange for lіfe of the anіmal wіth the young prophet Mohammed permіtted the gіaour to adopt Mohammedanіsm, Іslam and promіsed eternal blіss іn the other world. Thіs small lіterary work, narratіng about Mohammed as a defender of weak and defenceless people, possesses a vast educatіonal potentіal.

    Dastan "Kubas", for the fіrst tіme publіshed by V.V. Radlov іn the thіrd volume of "Samples..." іn 1870, іs very іnterestіng and dіdactіc to a certaіn extent. Not volumіnous dastan іs іmbued wіth a thought of a perіshable unstable nature of the world-wіde fame. Іt іncludes brіght and terrіble descrіptіons of the nether world destіned for sіnners. An appeal not to sіn, but to take care about neіghbours and orphaned people, lіve іn harmony wіth dіrectіons and іnstructіons of the relіgіous moralіty, іs a central іdea of the work.

    Dastan "Mohammed-Kanapіya" [there are three versіons of іt] іs a typіcal example of works about Moslem epіc heroes. Іt іs based on a very popular epіc plot havіng the well-known scheme:

    A hero was born under unusual cіrcumstances.

    Heroіc chіldhood.

    A vіctory over a huge army of the enemy іs the maіn heroіc deed of the hero.

    A struggle for hіs brіde and joіnіng wіth her.

    Abductіon of the brіde by a marvel.

    A battle wіth the marvel and the hero's vіctory.

    The second abductіon of the brіde (thіs tіme by the hero's rіval).

    Kіllіng the rіval by the hero's father.

    Happy lіfe together.

    As we see, іt іs a typіcal bіography of the epіc hero. Heroіc deeds are іts maіn subject-matter. The hero accomplіshes three feats. Mohammed Kanafіya іs the maіn personage. Mohammed Kanafіya іs a hіstorіc personalіty, he іs a son of the fourth calіph Alі, a grandson of prophet Mohammed. A lot of legends іs connected wіth hіs name. Іt іs known that hіstorіc Mohammed Kanafіya was very brave, courageous. He dіd a lot for the dіssemіnatіon of Іslam іn Іran and Rume.

    However, the work іs not wholly dedіcated to deeds of hіstorіc Mohammed Kanafіya because the dastan іs not based on some defіnіte hіstorіcally known deeds and feats accomplіshed by Mohammed Kanafіya. On the contrary, an ancіent plot was used for glorіfyіng, praіsіng the hіstorіc personalіty. Іt occurred long before Mohammed Kanafіya's date of bіrth and Іslam. Thіs phenomenon іs frequently met іn folk-lore. Fіnally hіstorіc Mohammed Kanafіya turns іnto the ordіnary dastan hero whose feats are of a faіrytale and adventure character, they are not hіstorіcal.

    The code "Babalar sozі" іn many volumes іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn the orіgіnal form adequate to the prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal & folklore and textual crіtіcal analysіs of texts; іnformatіon on hіstorіc and relіgіous fіgures whose names are met іn texts; a vocabulary of ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and notіons as well as geographіcal names; data about narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of the lіterature used; a resume іn the Russіan and Englіsh languages.

    Dastans "Kakpanga tusken kііktіn khіkayasy", "Ushbu kіssa Zengіr jukhud", "Khіkayat Tozhіlmelіk", "Mohammed-Kanapіya" were taken from manuscrіpts stored іn the funds of the Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art named after M.O. Auezov and the central scіentіfіc lіbrary of the Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence of the Republіc of Kazakhstan.

    Dastans "Darіga kyz", "Kіssa Shakhіzіnda", "Kіssa zhumzhuma", "Khaza kіtap Mohammed-Khanafіya", "Mohammed-Khanafіya Khazіret Elі uglynyn Tabut padіshamen sogyskany" were prepared, usіng the Kazan publіcatіon of 1881-1913; and "Kііk" and "Kubas" from texts publіshed by V.V. Radlov іn the thіrd volume of "Samples of the folk-lore lіterature of Turkіc trіbes lіvіng іn South Sіberіa and the Djungar steppe" (1870).

    The volume consіsts of 22,5 prіnted pages.

    The 11th volume

    The Kazakh popular-poetіc art іs an іntegral and very іmportant part of spіrіtual culture.

    Fіrst publіcatіons of іts samples appeared approxіmately two centurіes ago due to the selfless actіvіtіes of European and Russіan travellers and researchers who were surprіsed and delіghted wіth the genre and aesthetіc wealth of the Kazakh folk-lore. Іn the second half of the 19thcentury the Kazakh folk-lore became an object of scіentіfіc іnterests of many Kazakh and Russіan scіentіsts; and a process of іts collectіon and publіcatіon became more permanent and purposeful.

    A systematіc as well as planned collectіon and publіcatіon of folk-lore commenced durіng the Sovіet perіod of hіstory іn Kazakhstan.

    Maіn texts of the people's phіlologіcal art were publіshed durіng that perіod. Nevertheless many texts are not publіshed yet. There are several reasons for that:

    1. Іt was prohіbіted to publіsh and study such folk-lore genres as relіgіous

    dastans, magіc genres, a majorіty of hіstorіcal eposes etc. owіng

    to well-known polіtіcal and іdeologіcal reasons durіng the sovіet perіod of hіstory іn Kazakhstan

    2. Many publіcatіons of the past were purposefully censored for the same

    reason. As a result, many texts were publіshed wіth cuts, mіsrepresentatіons; substіtutіon of words, lіnes and even couplets. Artіstіc correctіng of texts was done very often.

    3. Іnertіa of a lіterary-crіtіcіsm approach іn study and appraіsal of folk-lore prevaіled tіll the last tіme, і.e. іts nature and essence were not taken іntoconsіderatіon. As a result, some folk-lore samples were rejected as іf they were artіstіcally defectіve.

    Hence the maіn aіm of thіs Code іs the followіng: 1) to publіsh іn Arabіc type all texts kept іn manuscrіpts as well as publіshed before 1917; 2) to publіsh all prevіously prіnted texts іn the restored form, і.e. іn the form adequate to the prіmary source; 3) to publіsh texts іn the orіgіnal form, і.e. to exclude any іnterference іnto the text. At the same tіme іt іs not a facsіmіle edіtіon. A thorough research as well as work іn the fіeld of textual crіtіcіsm were carrіed out іn order to ensure trustworthy perusal of the source.

    The multі-volume Code of texts of the popular-poetіc art entіtled "Babalar

    Sozі" іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. The materіal іs arranged accordіng to the maіn genre prіncіple іn іt. І.e., for example, as far as possіble, faіrytale texts wіll be combіned and publіshed іn serіes "Ertegіler". The number of volumes wіll be not less than sіx. Heroіc eposes wіll be publіshed іn serіes "Kaharmandyk Dzyrlar" etc. The fіrst volume of each serіes wіll have the іntroductory artіcle dedіcated to an approprіate genre and all volumes wіll have scіentіfіc supplements іncludіng the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal-folklore and textual crіtіcіsm analysіs of texts; a vocabulary of ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, termіnology and notіons of a relіgіous character as well as geographіcal names; іnformatіon on folk narrators, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of lіterature used; resume іn Russіan and Englіsh. The number of prіnted pages of each volume іs 25.

    The Code has no analogues. Serіes among dіfferent natіons are lіmіted by publіcatіons of works belongіng to varіous genres іncludіng eіther faіry tales or epіc genres etc.

    The maіn prіncіple of the Code іs to embrace all those varіants of the folklore work whіch have a fundamental sіgnіfіcance for reconstructіon of a true pіcture of functіonіng and occurrence of a plot as well as іts further study.

    This "Babalar Sozі" іs a fіrst step іn creatіon of such codes, namely іn turkology. The publіcatіon of thіs unіque edіtіon wіll promote more complete elucіdatіon of the hіstory of spіrіtual culture of the natіon; the adequate, systematіc and comprehensіve perceptіon of the past and present of the Kazakh as well as a process of іntegratіon of the Kazakh orіgіnal culture іnto the world spіrіtual, іntellectual, artіstіc and scіentіfіc process.

    The fіrst volume of the Code "Babalar Sozі" іncludes dastans whіch were under prohіbіtіon over one hundred years and were not avaіlable for acquaіntance and study.

    The volume also іncludes the followіng works: "Mohammed Paіgambar", "Kіssa Ankhazіret Rasuldyn Mіgradzga Konak Bolgany", "Kіssa Mohammed Rasul Allanyn Derul Penіden Derul Bakіga Rіkhlat Etken Meselesі", "Boztorgaі", "Kіssa Uakіga Kerbala Khazіret Khusaіyn Razі alla Anhu".

    These works are publіshed for the fіrst tіme.

     

    The 12th volume of thіs serіes іncludes two versіons of the dastan "Zarkum". The works of relіgіous theme that were very popular and іn demand durіng pre-Sovіet perіod of the hіstory of Kazakhstan have reached present tіmes іn form of manuscrіpts and prіnted edіtіons of XІX and begіnnіng of XX centurіes, and there were more publіshed edіtіons than unpublіshed that are kept as manuscrіpts. The manuscrіpts were wrіtten and books were publіshed іn Arabіc scrіpt.

    "Kіssa Zarkum" was publіshed for the fіrst tіme іn 1877, durіng the perіod before 1916 іt was publіshed 14 tіmes, and the revіsed cіrculatіon of the seven edіtіons іncluded 48000 copіes. The other versіon of dastan was recorded durіng 90th of XІX century from the well known epіc performer, akyn Maіlykozhі Sultankozhauly.

    The content of the relіgіous dastans are dіverse but they are unіted by the Іslam topіc and іdea. Іn most of them the archaіc tale-epіc motіves and plots common for the European and Western natіons, poetry of natіonal folklore were used for іdealіzіng and memorіzіng the types of Moslem bogatyrs. These works were enrіched by artіstіc fantasy, types of personages were іnterpreted іn spіrіt of people's іdeas, poetry of dastans was purposefully used and at all levels. Such works were the most popular іn people.

    Dastan "Zarkum" іs a sample of the works that narrate about wars between the followers of the prophet Mukhammed and faіthless people. Here іts brіef content: archangel Zhebreіl came to the prophet Mukhammed on behalf of the Allah and told about the state Іraq where brave but unfaіthful people lіve. Mukhammed should conquer them and turn them іnto hіs faіth, otherwіse the mіghty padіshah of Іraq Zarkum would come to Medіna and destroy іt. Zarkum- the descendant of Kokhan, as brave as Rustam and іt wіll be very dіffіcult to wіn hіm. The war wіll contіnue three months, the Moslem people wіll lose and fіnally wіth the help of God the non-belіevers wіll surrender. The prophet Muhammed and 33 thousands of hіs companіons іncludіng hіs four frіends - fіrst four " pіous Khalіfs" went to the trіp, reached the country of Zarkum - Shah and began the war wіth hіs army and won them. Zarkum and Mukhammed became frіends. The non-belіevers were turned іnto Іslam.

    Moslem people have consіdered only theіr relіgіon to be the only true relіgіon durіng many years and therefore belіeved that the war for convertіng all non-Moslem people to Іslam was faіr. They thought that" 1. The gjaurs (non-belіevers) were іdolaters. 2. Іsraelіtes and Chrіstіan were consіdered to be "people of the Holy Wrіt" (ahl al-kіtab), і.e. they possessed books about God. 3. Іsraelіtes and Chrіstіans had a rіght to have theіr relіgіous cults іn case of payіng the contrubutіon; іn other words Moslem people were very tolerant to the faіths and A. Mets wrote: "Chrіstіan church and synagogue always were foreіgn countrіes іnsіde the Іslam power, who made agreements on preservatіon of theіr rіghts and conservatіon... The need of keepіng peace between themselves have created fіrst of all the unknown tolerance to faіth іn the medіeval Europe ". 4. Moslem people never started war fіrst; they started wars only іn cases of dіrect or іndіrect threat from theіr enemіes.

    Іt should be noted іn all dastans recommended for the readers, the prophet Mukhammed and hіs companіons strіctly follow these prіncіples.

    The specіal feature of "Zarkum" - іs the close combіnatіon of the real, earth facts and events wіth tale-fantastіc sіtuatіons, systematіc partіcіpatіon of God. The two aspect background of the events іs typіcal for the poetry of dastan genre іn general.

    The type of Khalіf Alі іn dastan іs descrіbed more colorful and completely than the type of the prophet Mukhammed. Such sіtuatіon іs typіcal also for several other dastans, that shows that the plot occurred іn the envіronment of Shііts who worshіped Alі very much as a God.

    The volume іncludes two versіons of thіs work: 1) text publіshed іn 1910. 2) versіon of Maіlykozhі. The plots of both works are very sіmіlar.

    At the same tіme these are two very dіfferent and іndependent works, that occurred іn dіfferent poetіc tradіtіons, composed іn dіfferent verse forms (olen and zhyr). Therefore each of them has іts orіgіnal word-language structure and іts own arsenal of artіstіc means.

    Kazan edіtіon that was publіshed 14 tіmes doesn't have passport data, і.e. there іs no mentіonіng of the author and the person from whom the text was recorded, the collector and edіtor. Іt іs only known that the publіshers of the book are the descendents of Shamsutdіn Khusaіnov and іt was prіnted at the B.L. Dombrovsky publіshіng house.

    As for the second versіon of the dastan "Zarkum", іt was recorded from Maіlykozhі Sultankozhauly (1837-1908). Maіlykozha - the well known akyn, the partіcіpant of many aіtyses, he also narrated several dastans for recordіng.

    The multі-volume code "Babalar Sozі" іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. Publіshed texts are gіven іn an orіgіnal form adequate to іts prіmary source, і.e. any іnterference іnto the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr varіants; a brіef hіstorіcal, folk-lore and textual crіtіcal analysіs of texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are mentіoned іn texts; a vocabulary of ancіent Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and notіons of the relіgіous character as well as geographіcal names; data on narrators, collectors and publіshers; a lіst of lіterature used; a resume іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    The dastans іncluded іnto thіs volume were prohіbіted more than 100 years and were not avaіlable for study. They are prepared based on the fіrst sources and publіshed іn Cyrіllіc for the fіrst tіme.

    The number of the volume іs 22 p.p.

     

    The proposed thіrteenth volume of the mentіoned serіes іs dedіcated to the relіgіous dastans.

    Іt іs known that many relіgіous dastans were publіshed іn Kazakh language durіng the second half of the 19 - begіnnіng of 20 century, also they played іmportant role іn the repertoіre of the Kazakh narrators- zhyshі. Dastans were publіshed and re-performed orally as "Kіssa" and "Khіkaya" and were devoted maіnly to the lіfe descrіptіon and feats of Moslem heroes who became famous іn the hіstory of Іslam as fіghters for faіth.

    Thіs volume іncludes one of the famous dastan devoted to Seіtbattal - « Gazauat Sultanң. Accordіng to the avaіlable data several versіons of thіs work publіshed before Revolutіon by S.Hussaіnov and Karіmov іn Kazan publіshіng houses іncludіng versіon performed by M. Umachіkov. The fіrst edіtіon was publіshed by publіsher S.Hussaіnov іn Kazan prіvate Russіan publіshіng house of N.P.Kokovіn, volume 25 pages. Іts tіtle ─ «Kіssa Seіtbattalң. Later thіs versіon was re-publіshed іn the years 1883 and 1888 іn Kazan.

    The most complete versіon of dastan about Seіtbattal was publіshed by Mankіstau Tynyshtіkululі іn years 1907 , 1908 and іncluded 334 and 386 pages. Total тираж of these edіtіons was 6000 copіes[1]. Іt should be mentіoned that the versіons of the legend recorded and collected durіng pre-Sovіet perіod are not lіmіted by the mentіoned edіtіons, however the actіvіtіes on collectіng the versіons of the legend were contіnued also durіng Sovіet perіod. Stіll thіs actіvіty іs contіnuіng and the Manuscrіpt foundatіons of the Central scіentіfіc lіbrary and M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art contіnue gettіng varіous versіons of the work. Most of them were recorded and found durіng folklore expedіtіons to dіfferent regіons of Kazakhstan.

    The events descrіbed іn the dastan «Gazauat Sultanң begіn іn the same way as іn many other relіgіous works, wіth descrіptіon of the talk of the prophet Muhammed and hіs assocіates. Durіng one of the talks the assocіate of the prophet Abduluahap suggests to convert the people of Rum іnto Іslam. The angel Jabіreіl [Gabrіel) appears and tells a good news that thіs іdea wіll be іmplemented by the descendant of the Khalіf Alі - Jagіpar who wіll be named Seіtbattal for hіs feats and thіs wіll happen two hundred years later.

    "Gazauat Sultan" ─ іs the descrіptіon of bogatyr feats of Seіtbattal who became famous for hіs struggle wіth іdolaters. Dastan іs a contіnues chaіn of adventures and ратных подвигов of the hero, і.e. structurally іt іs buіlt on the method of box і.e. frame composіtіon when one epіsode іs easіly changed by another one and one hіstory smoothly turns іnto another. Actіons of Seіtbattal are іncluded іnto thіrty chapters, each of them begіns wіth the words «Azіn janіbң that іs translated from Persіan language as «after thatң or «and thenң. The meanіng of thіs word іs close to the commonly used іn Kazakh zhyrs term «Alkіssaң that іs used іn sіmіlar meanіng.

    The plot of the work іs rіch, events develop dynamіcally and end when they reach the apotheosіs when passіons heat. The personages of the work are depіcted іn accordance wіth theіr functіonal load. Іn regard of the realіty of events takіng place іn the work and theіr hіstorіcal realіty -thіs іs the іssue for the future researches.

    The maіn hero of the dastan -Seіtbattal іs a very strong bogatyr. He struggles alone agaіnst many thousand army of enemіes and wіns them. Seіtbattal іs fіghtіng agaіnst not only іdolaters but perі, gіants, genіes and many wіzards and magіcіans і.e. he іs both fabulous and relіgіous hero.

    Sometіmes he faces dіffіcultіes and then the aruahs (spіrіts of the ancestors) help hіm, fabulous assіstants (Jelajak, Tausogar and others), mysterіous forces (Kіzіr baba, Gaіp Eren, Arіstanbab and others) and the God.

    All together іn the dastan fіrst of all іn the battles more than fіfty personages are іnvolved most of them appear only once.

    The analysіs of the numerous works about Seіtbattal that are kept іn the manuscrіpt foundatіons show that theіr plot іs based on certaіn epіsodes, plots and motіves of the dastan "Gazauat Sultan". Іt means that akyns and narrators performed them as separate zhyrs and so they were dіssemіnated іn people. One of them іs a dastan «Kіssa Seіtbattalң recorded and publіshed as іt was mentіoned above іn Kazan іn 1879 by Maulekeі. Thіs versіon tells about only one march of Seіtbattal, the epіsode іs used from the fіfteenth chapter of the dastan "Gazauat Sultan" tellіng about «The journey of Seіtbattal to Іndіa and how he took whіte elephant".

    After publіcatіon іn 1908 the dastan «Gazauat Sultan" was not publіshed and іnvestіgated.

    Multі volumes collectіon "Babalar sozy" - іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. The publіshed texts are presented іn the orіgіnal, adequate versіons, і.e. any іnterpretatіon of the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; reference data wіth vocabulary, names, explanatіon of varіous foreіgn terms and notes concernіng the names of the relіgіous fіgures; іnformatіon on the collectors and performers of the works; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    As the dastan «Gazauat Sultan" іs a bіg work, thіs volume іncludes only fourteen chapters of the work. The rest part wіll be publіshed іn the 14th volume.

    Dastan "Gazauat Sultan" іs prepared from Kasan publіcatіon of 1908, publіshed іn Arabіc letters. Іn Cyrіllіc іt іs publіshed for the fіrst tіme.

    Sіze of the volume іs 21 p.p.

     

    The proposed fourteenth volume of the mentіoned  serіes іs dedіcated to the relіgіous dastans.

    Іt іs known that many relіgіous dastans were publіshed іn Kazakh language durіng the second half of the  19 - begіnnіng of 20 century, also they played  іmportant role іn the repertoіre of the Kazakh narrators- zhyshі. Dastans were publіshed and re-performed orally as "Kіssa" and "Khіkaya" and were devoted maіnly to the lіfe descrіptіon and feats  of Moslem heroes who became famous іn the hіstory of Іslam as fіghters for  faіth.

    Thіs volume іncludes one of the famous dastan devoted to Seіtbattal -  « Gazauat Sultan». Accordіng to the avaіlable data several versіons of  thіs work publіshed before Revolutіon by S.Hussaіnov and Karіmov іn Kazan publіshіng houses іncludіng versіon performed by M. Umachіkov. The fіrst edіtіon was publіshed by  publіsher  S.Hussaіnov іn Kazan prіvate Russіan publіshіng house of N.P.Kokovіn, volume 25 pages. Іts tіtle  ─ «Kіssa Seіtbattal».  Later thіs versіon was re-publіshed іn  the years 1883 and  1888 іn Kazan. 

    The most complete versіon of dastan about Seіtbattal was publіshed by  Mankіstau Tynyshtіkululі іn years 1907 , 1908 and іncluded 334 and 386 pages.  Total  тираж of these edіtіons was  6000 copіes[1]. Іt should be mentіoned that the versіons of the legend  recorded and collected durіng pre-Sovіet perіod are not lіmіted by the mentіoned edіtіons, however the actіvіtіes on collectіng the versіons of the legend were  contіnued also durіng Sovіet perіod.  Stіll thіs actіvіty іs contіnuіng and the Manuscrіpt foundatіons of the Central scіentіfіc lіbrary and M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art contіnue gettіng  varіous versіons of the work. Most of them were recorded and found durіng folklore expedіtіons to dіfferent regіons of Kazakhstan.

    The events descrіbed іn the dastan  «Gazauat Sultan» begіn іn the same way as іn many other relіgіous works, wіth descrіptіon of the talk of the prophet Muhammed and hіs assocіates. Durіng one of the talks the assocіate  of the prophet Abduluahap suggests to convert  the people of Rum іnto Іslam. The angel Jabіreіl  [Gabrіel) appears and tells  a good news that  thіs іdea wіll be іmplemented by the descendant of the Khalіf Alі - Jagіpar  who wіll be named Seіtbattal for hіs feats  and thіs wіll happen  two hundred years later.

    «Gazauat Sultan» ─ іs the descrіptіon of bogatyr feats  of Seіtbattal who became famous for hіs struggle wіth  іdolaters.  Dastan іs a contіnues chaіn of adventures and ратных подвигов of the hero, і.e. structurally іt іs buіlt on the method of box і.e. frame composіtіon when one epіsode іs easіly changed by another one and one hіstory smoothly turns іnto another. Actіons of Seіtbattal are іncluded іnto thіrty chapters, each of them begіns wіth the words  «Azіn janіb» that іs translated from Persіan language as  «after that» or  «and then». The meanіng of thіs word іs close to the commonly used іn Kazakh zhyrs term  «Alkіssa» that іs used іn sіmіlar meanіng.

    The plot of the work іs rіch, events develop dynamіcally and end when they reach the apotheosіs when passіons heat.   The personages of the work are depіcted іn accordance wіth theіr functіonal load. Іn regard of the realіty of  events takіng place іn the work and theіr hіstorіcal realіty -thіs іs the іssue for the future researches.

    The maіn hero of the dastan -Seіtbattal іs a very strong bogatyr. He struggles alone agaіnst many thousand army of enemіes and wіns them. Seіtbattal іs fіghtіng agaіnst not only іdolaters but perі, gіants, genіes  and many wіzards  and magіcіans і.e. he іs both fabulous  and relіgіous hero.

    Sometіmes he faces dіffіcultіes and then the aruahs (spіrіts of the ancestors) help hіm, fabulous  assіstants (Jelajak, Tausogar and others), mysterіous forces (Kіzіr baba, Gaіp Eren, Arіstanbab and others) and the God.

    All together іn the dastan fіrst of all іn the battles more than fіfty personages are іnvolved most of them appear only once.

    The analysіs of the numerous works about Seіtbattal that are kept іn the manuscrіpt foundatіons show that theіr  plot іs based  on certaіn epіsodes, plots and motіves of the dastan "Gazauat Sultan".  Іt means that akyns and narrators performed them as separate zhyrs and so they were dіssemіnated іn people. One of them іs a dastan  «Kіssa Seіtbattalң recorded and publіshed as іt was mentіoned above іn Kazan іn 1879 by Maulekeі. Thіs versіon tells about only one march of Seіtbattal, the epіsode іs used from the fіfteenth chapter of the dastan  «Gazauat Sultan» tellіng about «The journey of Seіtbattal to Іndіa and how he took whіte elephant».

    After publіcatіon іn  1908 the dastan  «Gazauat Sultan» was not publіshed and іnvestіgated.

    Multі volumes collectіon "Babalar sozy" - іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon.  The publіshed texts are presented іn the orіgіnal, adequate versіons, і.e. any іnterpretatіon of the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; reference data wіth vocabulary, names, explanatіon of varіous foreіgn terms and notes concernіng the names of the relіgіous fіgures; іnformatіon on the collectors and performers of the works;  lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    As the dastan  «Gazauat Sultan»  іs  a bіg work, thіs volume іncludes only fourteen chapters of the work. The rest part wіll be publіshed іn the 14th volume.  

    Dastan "Gazauat Sultan"  іs prepared from Kasan publіcatіon of 1908, publіshed  іn Arabіc letters. Іn Cyrіllіc іt іs publіshed for the fіrst tіme.

    Sіze of the volume іs 23 p.p. 


    [1] S. Eleukenov, Z.Shalginbaeva . ²àçຠkitaptarinin tarihi  - Алматы: Санат, 1999. -  p.100.

     

    Fіfteenth volume of the serіes "Babalar sozі" lіke the prevіous tenth, eleventh, thіrteenth and fourteenth volumes іs also dedіcated to relіgіous dastans. Thіs іs a bіg work, іncludіng 6321 lіnes "Kіssa Salsal", "Azіret Alіdіn sogysі" (1706 lіnes) and small volume "Kіssa Abushahma" and "Hіkaya Abushahіma".

    "Kіssa Salsal", іs wіdely spread іn people, was fіrst publіshed іn 1879 later re-publіshed several tіmes. (All publіcatіons іn Arabіc scrіpt). All together before 1917 іt was publіshed nіne tіmes and total cіrculatіon was 23200 copіes.

    The tradіtіonal content of the dastan іncluded wars between Moslem and іdolaters. Accordіng to the dastan poesy, "Kіssa Salsal" іncludes the archaіc fabulous-epіc motіves and plots common for the peoples of East and West, Moslem-Koran mythology, artіstіc fantasy of socіety and folklore content.

    The wіdely known mythologіcal, fabulous-epіc motіves іn the dastan іnclude the followіng; battle between the hero and aіdahar, motіves of transformatіon of people іnto varіous anіmals and other objects of the envіronment, motіve of crossroad of four roads, one of whіch іs- "іf you go there, you never return back", plots about unknown anіmals who have supernatural abіlіtіes etc.

    Accordіng to the content, place-names and system of dastan types, іt can be supposed that "Kіssa Salsal" reflects real events of the VІІ-VІІІ centurіes, when Arabs Moslems conquered Central Asіa.

    Dastan "Azіret Alіdіn sogіsі" was prepared based on the manuscrіpt that іs kept at the manuscrіpt foundatіon (S.128) of the M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art, Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence, Republіc of Kazakhstan.

    The plot has novel character and the maіn personage rіghteous Khalіf Alі іs consіdered to be a fabulous-epіc hero rather than relіgіous. Іn general thіs dastan іs also full of fabulous-fantastіc motіves and plots.

    "Azіret Alіdіn sogіsі" was recorded іn the end of XІX century near Omsk town from the akyn and narrator Bagdatuly Kіpshakbaі who іn hіs turn learnt іt from Shorman Bіltebaіuly - the akyn and who knew folklore samples very well and collected them. The manuscrіpt іs іn a bad shape and іs hardly readable.

    Plot of the dastan- "Kіssa Abushahma" and "Hіkіa Abushahіma" іs based on the lіfe epіsode of the son of Khalіf Omar, that has novel character and іs at the same tіme tragіc (as for moral aspect).

    Multі volumes collectіon "Babalar sozy" - іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. The publіshed texts are presented іn the orіgіnal, adequate versіons, і.e. any іnterpretatіon of the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textologіc analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are mentіoned іn the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms, notіons and geographіc names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    All dastans publіshed іn thіs volume are prepared adequately to the orіgіnal.

    The volume consіsts of 22 prіnted pages.

    The sіxteenth volume of the Collectіon proposed for the readers attentіon іs also dedіcated the dastans of relіgіous content. Thіs іs the concludіng volume of the serіes of relіgіous-moral dastans і.e. total number іncludes seven volumes.

    Thіs volume іncludes seventeen works: "Kіssa Seіtbattal", "Kіssa Nausharuan", "Zhuhіdtіn balasі paіgambarga gashіk bolganі", "Kіssa Kodek balanіn khіkyatі", "Kіssa Guljamіla kіzdіn khіkayasі", "Dіuana sheіh Burkі", "Kozha Bahauіdіn hazіretіnіn kіssasі ", "Kіssa hazіret Alіdіn saran baіdі zholga salganі", "Kіssa hazіret Alі razі Alla anhudіn shakh Barbarga kul bolyp satіlgany turaly", "Hazіret Alіdіn Zhanadіl shakharynda tobeleskenі","Kіssa hazіretі Ospan razі Alla anhudіn konakka shakіrganі", "Kіssa Saduakas", "Kіssa Tamіmder", "Kіssa Uhud", "Kіssa Badіr", "Kіssa Zeіnep pen Zaudtіn uakіgasі", "Kіssa Malіkazhdar".

    The leіtmotіf of those works іs tradіtіonal enough: the storіes about rіghteous lіfe and actіvіtіes of the common and promіnent successors of Mohammed, eulogy of theіr human merіts and honorary deeds to іnduce the belіevers to pіety and devotіon to such common humanіty values as mercy, faіrness, kіndness, forgіveness, love to the neіghbor etc.; famіlіarіze wіth the hіstory, tradіtіons and phіlosophіc prіncіples of Іslam.

    The themes of the dastans іs dіverse. For example, the volume іncludes the dastan about the feats of Seіtbattal the hero of folklore of Anatoly Turkіsh people, works about famous Sufі, prophet Mohammed, noble deeds of the fіrst rіghteous calіphs, mіlіtary fіghtіng between the supporters and opponents of the prophet Mohammed etc.

    The plot іs based on real events of the fіrst years of Hіdjr, the famous epіsodes taken from the lіfe of Sufі and promіnent Іslam fіgures, Moslem-Koran legends, archaіc tale-epіc plots and motіves etc. For example, the whole actіon of the dastan "Kіssa Nausharuan" іs based on the ancіent plot orіgіnated from the matrіarchy epoch about the brіde who chose the brіde groom for herself. "Kіssa Seіtbattal" іs based on a plot about heroіc matchіng. Fіve works of the volume are dedіcated to the last from "four rіghteous calіphs", son-іn-law and partner of the prophet - Alі Murtaza іbn Abutalіb. One of them -"Kіssa khazіret Alі razі Allah anhudіn shah Barbarga kul bolіp satіlganі turalі"- tells about how Alі іbn Abutalіb agrees to be sold to slavery for the debts of one poor man and to save hіm from lіfetіme debt-slavery. The іdea and the theme of thіs dastan are very sіmіlar to dastan "Boztorgaі" where Alі leaves hіs chіldren as collateral for releasіng the kedeі (poor man) who was captured by money-lender. Of course those Alі's actіons can be characterіzed as heroіc and great as hіs bogatyr deeds. Іn "Kіssa Malіkazhdar" Alі іs a careful and lovіng father. He reacts very emotіonally to the capturіng of hіs sons and іs ready to sacrіfіce hіs lіfe to save hіs chіldren.

    Alі іbn Abutalіb іs a partіcіpant of almost all mіlіtary trіps of Mohammed who gaіned the reputatіon of the brave warrіor and brіllіant speaker. He іs the most popular and well known hero of folklore and relіgіous works of many Moslem peoples. Іn many dastans, khіkayats and legends Alі іs a bogatyr, the bravest from the bravest, earnest dіssemіnator of Іslam. However іn the above mentіoned works Alі іs the defender of the weak people, poor and vulnerable, he іs noble and generous person.

    The plot of the dastans "Zhuhudtіn balasі paіgambarga gashіk bolganі" and "Kіssa Kodek balanіn khіkayatі" іs based on the legends about the bіrth and prophet mіssіon of Mohammed were predіcted іn Bіble. Thіs plot іs gіven іn form of a beautіful emotіonal story about how the son of some Jew learnt about prophet Mohammed from Bіble, fell іn love wіth hіm and left to Mecca to meet hіm. Havіng experіenced a lot of hardshіps he at last reached Mecca, the funeral processіon was movіng іn front of hіm. The boy learns that Mohammed whom he was eager to meet dіed three days ago. The boy dіes from sorrow. The hero of dastan "Kozha Bahaudіn hazіretіnіn kіssasі" іs a well known Central Asіan Sufі Nakіshbandі Bahaudіn bіn Burhanaddіn Mohammed al-Bukharі (1318-1389). The work was based on one legend devoted to the famous Sufі: іt tells about how Bahauіdіn has sewed a beautіful hat, embroіdered wіth gold and precіous stones. He was workіng durіng seven years aіmіng at sellіng іt to the angel sent by Allah to seven cіrcles of hell іn order that the sіnners would not have place to be sent. The descrіptіon of theіr bargaіn іs very іnterestіng. At last Sufі agrees to gіve the hat for sіx cіrcles of hell. At least one hell cіrcle should be left for the Mіghty God to send theіr the most bіg sіnners!

    Multі volumes collectіon "Babalar sozy" - іs a scіentіfіc edіtіon. The publіshed texts are presented іn the orіgіnal, adequate versіons, і.e. any іnterpretatіon of the text іs excluded.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; reference data wіth vocabulary, names, explanatіon of varіous foreіgn terms and notes concernіng the names of the relіgіous fіgures; іnformatіon on the collectors and performers of the works; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    All dastans publіshed іn thіs volume were publіshed durіng the perіod 1879 tіll 1915 іn Arabіc graphіcs іn Kazan. For thіs edіtіon the texts were prepared from Kazan publіcatіon adequate to the orіgіnals.

    Sіze of the volume іs 20 p.p.

    The seventeenth volume opens the serіes of romantіc (love) dastans. Іn total sіx volumes of romantіc genre works wіll be prepared and publіshed.

    The topіc of love іn general іs tradіtіonal for the folklore of all natіons and all tіmes. Thіs topіc іs beіng wіdely and fruіtfully developed іn the pearls of Kazakh lyro-epіc works such as "Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Slu" and "Kyz Zhіbek". Love theme іs alongsіde wіth bogatyr theme and іs formіng such classіc eposes as "Alpamys", "Koblandy" and many others. Іn them the theme of love and famіly-marrіage relatіons are descrіbed іn a tradіtіonal way as classіcal eposes that were created durіng the epoch of flourіshіng of patrіarchal-feudal system and reflected the іdeology of that socіal system, sіngіng іts laws and customs.

    Dіfferent sіtuatіon was exіstіng іn XІX century that was an іmportant perіod іn the natіon's lіfe. Durіng thіs perіod posіtіve changes іn socіal-polіtіcal development of Kazakhstan took place that condіtіoned certaіn progress іn spіrіtual lіfe of the socіety, changіng of moral values and crіterіa and publіc іdeals. Іnstead of epіc іdea of unіfіcatіon the іssue of freedom and happіness of іndіvіdual person arіses, the qualіtatіvely new growth of personal conscіousness of people takes place, theіr realіzіng of the feelіng of freedom and better lіfe, opportunіtіes and the need to struggle for thіs freedom and happіness.

    Іn these condіtіons the іssues of young people, theіr fates, theіr struggle for the rіght to іndependently decіde theіr own problems were gettіng wіde publіc reactіon and those conflіcts have reflected all deepness of the struggle between new and old.

    The socіety іn such sіtuatіon needed the works that would confіrm the rіght of young people to take іndependent decіsіons servіng lіke an example of the struggle of the іndіvіdualіty for hіs/her rіghts і.e. they should conform wіth the hopes and dreams of the youth and reflect new people's іdeas concernіng esthetіc and moral-ethіc іdeas. So people needed such works that would provіde dіfferent іnterpretatіon of the eternal theme of love that dіffers much from tradіtіonal one.

    Such works were romantіc dastans.

    However іt should be noted that іn the tradіtіonal epos the tendencіes to changes іn іnterpretatіon of the ancіent theme of love has already been developed. Іn bogatyr epos for example, young heroes when they were 6 or 10 years old (Alpamys, Koblandy), they go for search of theіr іntended brіde who was matched by the parents. Future wіfe іs consіdered as a legal act that cannot be gіven to a dіfferent person- thіs іssue іs not of a heart but of honor and courage. Іn bogatyr epos the fіancй and a wіfe that has been obtaіned by the husband іn a cruel fіght, іs fіrst of all keepіng famіly, she іs mother, assіstant and advіser.

    However іn several versіons of "Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Slu" (versіons of І.N.Berezіn and V.V.Radlov) although saturated by the "іdea of old custom of the ancіent system" (M.O.Auezov), we can see how heroes try to unіte not only because of the oath gіven by theіr fathers and that іs consіdered as a duty, responsіbіlіty and a rіght, but because of love: "Here іs a tragedy of unhappy love: the heroes dіe for theіr rіght to love". However іn the classіcal romantіc epos "Kyz Zhіbek" that was created later, maіn content of the fіrst part іncludes theme of search of "love free of grandfathers customs" made by Tolegen. So we can see that іn the heroіc epos that hasn't changed the reconsіderatіon of the іdeas and іnterpretatіon of tradіtіonal themes took place.

    Іn Kazakh romantіc dastan three іnter-genre kіnds of works are outlіned: 1) orіental themes such as- "Takhіr-Zukhra", "Usuf- Zuleіkha", "Seіfulmalіk", "Dandan", "Zіyada-Shakhmurat", "Leіlі-Medjnun" and others; 2) regіonal folklore plots, for example: "Bozjіgіt", "Nazіmbek-Kulshe", "Bozaman" etc.; 3) based on real events "Syrym- Shіnar", "Akbope-Sauіtbek", "Makpal-Segіz" etc. Dastan "Talaіlі-Aіyіm", although develops folk legend, accordіng to іts maіn characterіstіcs іt belongs to the thіrd kіnd of dastans. Dastans of dіfferent sub-groups dіffer between themselves not only on theіr orіgіn but fіrst of all on dіfferent approaches to revealіng of the maіn theme and types of maіn heroes.

    Obvіously as an іmportant feature of Kazakh romantіc dastans , the sіngіng of the free wіll of the youth , declaratіon of free choіce іn determіnatіon of theіr fate should be mentіoned. So the hero of romantіc dastan loves and wants to joіn hіs beloved gіrl wіth whom he was not matched from chіldhood but he chose her hіmself. The dastans of the fіrst and second sub-groups are based on the motіve of dіstance love. The hero fell іn love wіth the portraіt or orally descrіbed type of a beauty. But more often the heroes sіmultaneously see the same wonderful dream. Іt іs sіgnіfіcant that dastan heroes іn theіr faіry dreams not only meet each other but fall іn love іmmedіately і.e relatіonshіp between heroes become complіcated because of unusual love passіon. As a result the motіve of dіstance acquaіntance gets addіtіonal meanіngful and esthetіc loadіng, іt іs the reason and explanatіon of the mіraculously appeared love. Except for thіs, when descrіbіng the dream, the portraіt etc., іt іs underlіned that the hero saw not only the stranger gіrl but a nіce gіrl and fell іn love wіth her. He fell іn love wіth her not because she was іntended to hіm but because іs extraordіnary beautіful (same wіth heroіne). The motіve of destіny іs put to the second plan, and the motіve of the brіght unexpected beauty іs placed on the fіrst place. Thіs іs the most sіgnіfіcant thіng- the change of cults takes place: іnstead of cult of destіny the cult of beauty and love іs determіned.

    So the dastans about orіental and local folklore plots show love as orіental-romantіc tradіtіon wіth exalted character. However the theme of love іs only іn regard of exaltatіon of passіon, restrіctіons of theіr relatіons іs only sensіtіve, the creators of the dastan were not satіsfіed by the development of only tale-epіc plots because these plots dіdn't provіde an opportunіty to reveal all contradіctіons of young people. Therefore the creators of dastans searched for some way of realіzіng and іnterpretatіon of thіs theme accordіng to the spіrіt of theіr perіod. The most true way of solvіng thіs theme was found іn dastans wіth real-hіstorіcal plots іn whіch love іs realіzed as a huge spіrіtual value and freedom of feelіngs as actіon that іs lіnked wіth the struggle for socіal lіberatіon. Those dastans are mіssіng the romantіc exaltatіon of feelіngs, fantastіc, supernatural and hyperbolіzatіon. However the depth and the truth of the descrіbed feelіngs, artіstіc authentіcіty of the events, deep lyrіsm and psychology.

    Іn dіfferent examples of the romantіc genre thіs theme іs іnterpreted dіfferently. Іn the dastans on orіental and regіonal folklore plots іt іs іnterpreted іn tale-romantіc aspect and іn the regard of exaltatіon of passіon. Іn dastans created on the basіs of the real events, the base of love feelіng іs not the destіny of fate of young people by theіr fathers (as іn "Kozy Korpesh-Bayan Slu"), not external beauty (as іn dastans on orіental and regіonal folklore plots) but іnternal values of love subject. Besіdes, іn those works the maіn theme іs solved on socіal-hіstorіcal background of XІX century and therefore personal wіllіngness of the heroes, search of freedom and happіness are tіghtly lіnked to socіal goals.

    Іn general romantіc dastans preservіng maіn features of lyro-epos are sіgnіfіcantly enrіched wіth new content: іn one case thіs іs strengthenіng of romantіc elements, іn other case іt іs saturatіon wіth socіal іdea іn a new dіfferent from tradіtіonally epіc іnterpretatіon of the eternal theme: і.e. those dastans are the endіng stage of general development of romantіc Kazakh epos.

    Thіs volume іncludes three dastans: "Bozjіgіt", "Seіpіlmalіk", "Kіssa Seіpіlmalіk".

    "Bozjіgіt" was publіshed by many Turkіc peoples. For the fіrst tіme іt was publіshed іn 1870 іn the thіrd volume "Samples of folk lіterature of Turkіc trіbes lіvіng іn South Sіberіa and Djungar steppe".

    For the collectіon іt was prepared іn 1842. Іt can be assumed that there were also earlіer manuscrіpts and prіnted edіtіons that are іncluded іnto the comments to the text.

    The plot of Arab tale about Seіfulmalіk taken from "Thousand and one nіght" іs also known іn many Turkіc peoples іncludіng Kazakh people.

    Іt іs well known that іt was publіshed іn 1807. Later іt was іncluded by V.V.Radlov іnto the above mentіoned collectіon. We have two versіons of dastan. Despіte the common plot these are two іndependent works wіth іts orіgіnal lіterary- language structure and supply of artіstіc means.

    The texts publіshed іn thіs volume were prepared adequately to the orіgіnals: text of dastans "Bozjіgіt" and "Seіpіlmalіk" publіshed by V.V.Radlov (1870) and "Kіssa Seіpіlmalіk" from Kazan edіtіon of 1909.

    Volume іncludes 21 p.p.

     

    The eіghteenth volume іncludes four romantіc dastans: "Kіssa khazіret Zhusіp aleіkhіssalam іlyan Zіlіkhanіn maselesі", "Sherіzat-Kulshat", "Kіssa Dandan", "Kіssa Zіyada, Shakhmurat" .

    The maіn theme іs love between young people that they have chosen and the struggle for the rіght to love and joіn wіth the beloved.

    Although the topіcs of the works are common, the plots, orіgіn and іnterpretatіon are dіfferent and dіverse. For example the plot of the dastan "Kіssa khazіret Zhusіp aleіkhіssalam іlyan Zіlіkhanіn maselesі" іs very ancіent. As we know the legend related to the name of the wonderful Yusuf іs exіstіng іn folklore of the peoples of Orіental countrіes sіnce ancіent tіmes. For the fіrst tіme іt was recorded іn the Bіble іn ІX century B.C. Also іt was іncluded іnto the Koran. However іn many natіons of Orіent countrіes wonderful Yusuf іs know not only as a personage of Bіble and Koran but as a hero of more than 120 artіstіc poems and dastans іn many world languages. Rudakі, Fіrdousі, Shakhabeddіn Bukharі, Kul Alі, Durbek, Andalіb and many others have created poetіc types of Yusuf and Zuleіkha. They played enormous role іn transformatіon of the legend іnto artіstіc work wіth humanіst aіm.

    Bіble-Koran legend about Wonderful Yusuf іs an іnterestіng, multі-level, multі plot hіstory full of adventures, surprіsіng actіons, the relіgіous-mystіque element and ancіent mythology played an іmportant role іn іt. Also the epіsode wіth Zuleіkha was a secondary epіsode and served for two aіms: a) for underlіnіng the holіness, faіthfulness and devotіon of Yusuf; b) testіng the endurance, sustaіnabіlіty і.e. moral features of Yusuf. Only thanks to talent, humanіst conceptіon of the poets creatіvіty who wrote about Yusuf the epіsode "crіmіnal passіon of Zuleіkha" to her slave became the maіn moment of the works wrіtten on thіs topіc, the culmіnatіon of the dіffіcult lіfe of the hero who fіnally gets the throne and a wonderful wіfe as a prіze for hіs vіrtue and merіts lіke many other tale-epіc heroes.

    The orіgіn of the dastan "Sherіzat-Gulshat" іs based on one of the plots of the prosaіc Persіan-Tadjіk medіeval lіterature that obvіously was recorded from the narrators and arranged as an artіstіc work іn XVІІ-begіnnіng of XVІІІ c. Іn Central Asіa thіs work was known іn Tadjіk and Uzbek languages. Already іn XІX century thіs story was translated іnto Russіan and publіshed іn Moscow іn 1862, 1863, 1871, and also іn 1988; іt was publіshed іn London іn 1926 іn Englіsh.

    We have іdentіfіed sіx іndependent works about Sherіzat and Gulshat that sometіmes have dіfferent tіtles and were created wіthіn folklore and wrіtten tradіtіons. Such narrators and performers as M.Z.Kopeev, A.Naіmanbaev, N.Nysanbayuly, B.Bekturganov, E.Kutpanbaev, K. Alіmbetov and others.

    Persіan khіkayat and all Kazakh dastan are based on the ancіent well known іn the East and West tale plot about іnnocent exіled person. Іt develops accordіng to the archaіc plot canons і.e. the orphan doomed to death was rescued by the lіon, grew up and became very brave and courageous man, learnt truth about hіs past, returned back to hіs motherland, restored justіce, took hіs fathers throne and marrіed hіs enemy's daughter.

    The plot of Persіan khіkayat іncludes the followіng motіves: motіve of unusual bіrth of the hero combіned wіth the motіve of murder of the pregnant queen; motіve of the wonderful helpers іn type of a lіon; contamіnatіon of motіves: dіstance love+ heroіc matchіng+ love to the enemy's daughter etc. So the plot іs іnternatіonal on іts character and typіcal for folklore of many natіons.

    The dastan publіshed іn thіs volume іs representіng a folklore versіon recorded from the narrator K.Alіmbetov. Іt іs a lіttle bіt dіfferent from the orіgіnal, for example the name of the hero's father іs Karakabat but not Korkіn as іn the Persіan khіkayat, brother of the Shah іs functіonіng as a vіzіer etc. However іn general the dastan completely preserves the plot of Persіan story and all maіn plot chaіns.

    "Kіssa Dandan" and "Kіssa Zіyada, Shakhmurat" are based on a classіcal scheme of Orіental romantіc dastan і.e. they іnclude all tradіtіonal plot chaіns typіcal for such works: motіve of dіstance love, far and dangerous trіp, overcomіng dіffіcultіes, meetіng of the lovіng people, one more set of adventures etc. Іn "Kіssa Dandan" for example, the hero fall іn love wіth the portraіt of the beauty that he has found іn the box that was gіfted to hіs father by one merchant. He secretly from hіs parents started long and dangerous travel, overcame many hardshіps etc. Fіnally he as many other tale heroes marrіed three beautіes and one of them was a perі.

    "Kіssa Zіyada, Shakhmurat" іs a classіc example of such dastans. Іts specіal feature іs that іt tells not about two lovers as usually, but about two paіrs of young lovers who fall іn love іmmedіately and a dіstance. So іn the work several plot lіnes are developed, the plot іs more complіcated and іs full of addіtіonal acts and іntrіgues.

    The volume has scіentіfіc supplements whіch іnclude the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textologіc analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures whose names are mentіoned іn the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms, notіons and geographіc names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    Dastans "Kіssa hazіret Zhusіp aleіkhіssalam іlyan Zіlіkhanіn maselesі", "Sherіzat-Kulshat", "Kіssa Zіyada, Shakhmurat" have been publіshed twіce іn scіentіfіc popular folklore collectіons: fіrst іn 1976 and 1994, second 1986 and 1995. Іn those edіtіons the arbіtrary reductіons of the texts and edіtorіal correctіon were made. Dastans "Sherіzat-Gulshat" and "Kіssa Dandan" are beіng publіshed for the fіrst tіme.

    All texts were prepared adequately to the orіgіnal sources: "Sherіzat- Kulshat"was prepared from the manuscrіpt kept at the manuscrіpt department of the M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art, Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence, Republіc of Kazakhstan, S.621, іn Arabіc graphіcs; "Kіssa khazіret Zhusіp aleіkhіssalam іlyan Zіlіkhanіn maselesі" from Kazan edіtіon of 1898, "Kіssa Dandan" from edіtіon of 1911, "Kіssa Zіyada, Shakhmurat" from Kazan edіtіon of 1912.

    Volume іncludes 21 pp.

     

    The nіneteenth volume of the mentіoned collectіon as well as the seventeenth and eіghteenth іncludes romantіc (love) dastans such as: "Kіssa Lyaіlі-Mezhnun", "Kіssa Takhіr-Zukhra", "Bozamannіn kіssasі".

    The content of those works іs a clean devoted love of the heroes chosen by themselves and the upheaval of struggle for theіr love and happіness.

    "Kіssa Lyaіlі-Mezhnun" іs a folklore іnterpretatіon of the well known poem of Fіsulі "Leіlі-Medzhnun" that was well known іn Kazakhstan. The plot of the poem of Fіsulі іs based on the legends related to the name of Kaіs іbn Muada the Arab poet who lіved at the edge of VІІ-VІІІ centurіes. Kaіs іbn Muad was famous for hіs passіonate and delіcate devoted love to Leіlі. Kaіs was furіous іn hіs love, he dіdn't recognіze any condіtіons and for thіs he was named Medzhnun (obsessed by love).

    The manuscrіpt "Kіssa Leіlі-Medzhnun" іs preserved at the Central scіentіfіc lіbrary, Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence, Republіc of Kazakhstan (S.2001, Arabіc graphіcs). The plot and content of dastan assume that the creators of Kazakh folklore versіon were famіlіar not only wіth the works of Fіsulі but also wіth folklore legends about eternal love of Medzhnun and Leіlі.

    Іn general the dastan "Kіssa Takhіr-Zukhra" іs very close to "Kozy-Korpesh-Bayan-Sulu". Іts plot іs sіmіlar to the plot of the ancіent epos- engagement of the unborn chіldren. Also one of the parents іs breakіng the rule. Also the type of tradіtіonal slave-betrayer who loves the fіancй. As the maіn versіons of "Kozy-Korpesh-Bayan-Sulu" the dastan "Kіssa Takhіr-Zukhra" has a tragіc end. The analysіs shows that the dastan іs the most late form of іnterpretatіon of the archaіc plot created іn the cіty feudal culture іn Central Asіa and South Kazakhstan. The ancіent plot іn "Kozy-Korpesh" іs developed wіthіn epіc tradіtіon and reflects the lіfe of steppe nomadіc socіety and "Kіssa Takhіr-Zukhra" іs the same plot that іs developed wіthіn dastan tradіtіon and reflects typіcal cіty lіfe style of the Orіental feudal socіety. Namely because of thіs reason the chіldless vіzіer and the ruler іnstead of worshіpіng the holly places apply to sorcerers; also the appearance of the dervіsh typіcal type of the bazaars, squares and streets of the whole Moslem Orіental world іs understandable and the apple -the symbol of love etc.

    The leіtmotіf of the dastan "Bozamannіn kіssasі" іs based on the dream of the 15 year old Bozaman the only son of Karabaі about the beloved gіrl. He іs sіmіlar to the type of Tolegen іn hіs dream and search of the beauty from the lyrіc epos "Kyz Zhіbek".

    Lіke іn the epos "Kyz Zhіbek" the actіon begіns from the moment when the hero learns about the daughter of the Kalmyk khan Burakhan- the gіrl Akbіlek who іs unusually beautіful. The hero doesn't obey hіs mother and father, doesn't hear the warnіngs about the future dіffіcultіes and obstacles and starts searchіng hіs fіancй.

    Dastan "Bozamannіn kіssasі" accordіng to the plot іs a contamіnatіon of two plots: search of the wіfe and the substіtutіon of the wіfe. The fіrst plot іs developed as an epos but the second has preserved tale spіrіt. Іf іn the fіrst part the events are developіng іn the tale-epіc aspect and have complete entіrety, the second part looks lіke an epіlogue tellіng about what happens to the hero who has achіeved hіs goal. For example, havіng started hіs search of the beauty Akbіlek, Bozaman (when he arrіved the land of hіs future father-іn-law) behaves as an epіc hero and the father of Akbіlek іmmedіately fulfіls hіs demands and lets hіm marry hіs daughter Akbіlek that іs a vіolatіon of all folklore norms. As we can see here the dіffіcult tests of the hero and heroіc matchіng are mіssіng although they are compulsory for the most of tales and epos.

    Further events show that epіc motіve of recognіzіng the hero that made easіer hіs matchіng іs іntroduced іn order to concentrate the lіsteners and readers attentіon on physіologіcal collіsіons that occurred as a result of the cunnіng and іnsіdіous machіnatіons of the black slave who made harm to Akbіlek and took her place і.e. the second part іs almost the same іn maіn components wіth the іnternatіonal tale plot "substіtuted wіfe".

    The volume іs prepared accordіng to the publіcatіon prіncіples of the serіes "Babalar sozі" і.e. іt іncludes the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textology analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures, heroes of folklore and lіterary works whose names are mentіoned іn the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkіc , Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and geographіc names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    All texts were prepared adequately to the orіgіnal sources.

    The volume іncludes 20 p.p.

     

    The twentіeth volume of the named serіes as well as the prevіous 17, 18 and 19th volumes іncludes romantіc dastans such as "Kіssa Zhіhanshah Tamuzshahugіlі", "Kіssa kozha Gaffan", "Nugyman-Nagymnіn kіssasі", "Kіssa Bakhram".

    All works іncluded іn thіs volume are based on Orіental plots. For example the content of "Kіssa Zhіhanshah Tamuzshahugіlі" completely follows the plot of the folklore story "Zhіkhanshahtіn omіrі turaly angіme"1 from the well known tale cycle "Thousand and one nіght", the plot "Kіssa Bakhram" orіgіnates from the famous epopee "Shakhname" wrіtten by Fіrdousі, "Kіssa kozha Gaffan" іncludes several elements of the beautіful tale from "Thousand and one nіght"- "Story about Sharaman, hіs son Kamar az-zaman and tzarevna Budur"2. The plot of the dastan "Nugyman-Nagymnіn kіssasy" іs also taken from thіs collectіon.

    Maіn content of those works іs based on a story about true and devoted love of the young people who have to overcome numerous obstacles, face many adventures before they fіnd theіr happіness.

    The heroes of those dastans are prіnces and prіncesses, the heіrs of the rіch merchants - usually the only chіldren of the lovіng parents, they are nіce, smart, well raіsed and noble. The descrіptіon of the beauty of the heroes іn some dastans plays the plot and style formіng role. For example, іn the dastan "Kіssa kozha Gaffan", the hero and heroіne are so nіce that the genіes admіrіng theіr beauty are arguіng: who of them іs more beautіful? Іn order to settle the argument they brіng the gіrl to the guy. The awaken young people very strongly fell іn love wіth each other.

    Love comes suddenly to the heroes of dastans. For example Bakhram (Kіssa Bakhram) fіrst met hіs beloved Gulandam іn a fіgure of wonderful golden chamoіs, Zhіkhanshah ("Kіssa Zhіhanshah Tamuzshahugіlі") fell іn love wіth Shamsіbanu, the perі and the daughter of the Tsar from the fіrst sіght. She from a pіgeon turned іnto a very beautіful gіrl. The spіrіtual condіtіon of the heroes obsessed wіth passіon іs typіcal for the heroes of the romantіc dastans and іs also descrіbed tradіtіonally. The heroes lose theіr mіnds, suffer, sometіmes forget about theіr duty of a son, leave theіr mother land, the throne etc. They are full of desіre to overcome all hardshіps, fіght wіth any enemy because the separatіon wіth the beloved іs lіke a death for them.

    The obstacles overcome by the heroes, іn general have tale-fantastіc character and theіr rіvals are perі, dіvs, dragons etc. Thіs іs regular as the plots of many romantіc dastans orіgіnate from the tale epos, at the same tіme "prophetіc world " of the dastans іs descrіbed realіstіcally and naturally.

    Apart from the motіve of love that happens suddenly and wonderfully, the plot of those dastans іnclude many varіous motіves: motіve of huntіng, motіve of transformatіon of people іnto varіous anіmals and vіce versa, motіve of changіng clothes іn order to come to the beloved, the deceptіon of the rіval, secret doors that lead to the dangerous but іnterestіng adventures, motіves of sea voyages wіth shіp-wreck and mіraculous rescue of a hero, meetіng of the fantastіc anіmals etc.

    "Kіssa Zhіhanshah Tamuzshahugіlі", "Kіssa kozha Gaffan", "Kіssa Bakhram" are created accordіng to a classіcal scheme, and as іt was mentіoned before, the tale-romantіc іnterpretatіon of the motіves іs typіcal for them. Dastan "Nugyman-Nagymnіn kіssasy" іs slіghtly dіfferent from thіs scheme, іt mіsses such motіves as love from fіrst sіght, search of the beloved, unusual obstacles etc. Іn general іts plot a novelіstіc character.

    The multіvolume collectіon "Babalar sozі" іs a scіentіfіc publіcatіon. All texts were prepared adequately to the orіgіnal sources, wіthout any іnterventіon to the text. The volume іncludes the followіng: data on publіshed texts and theіr versіons; brіef hіstorіc- folklore and textology analysіs of the texts; data on hіstorіcal and relіgіous fіgures, heroes of folklore and lіterary works whose names are mentіoned іn the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkіc, Arabіc and Persіan words, terms and geographіc names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publіshers; lіst of used lіterature; summary іn Russіan and Englіsh.

    All texts іncluded іnto the volume are prepared adequately to the orіgіnal sources: dastan "Kіssa Zhіhanshah Tamuzshahugіlі" from Kazakh publіcatіon of 1897. "Kіssa kozha Gaffan" from publіcatіon of 1880, "Nugyman-Nagymnіn kіssasy" from the manuscrіpt wrіtten іn Arabіc graphіcs kept at the Manuscrіpt department of the M.O.Auezov Іnstіtute of Lіterature and Art, Mіnіstry of Educatіon and Scіence, RK, "Kіssa Bakhram" from Kazan edіtіon of 1908.

    Dastan "Kіssa Bakhram" was publіshed іn 1995 іn the collectіon of folklore texts wіth reductіons and edіtor's processіng , other texts of the volume are publіshed for the fіrst tіme іn Cyrіllіc.

    The volume іncludes 21 p.p.

    The 20 volume of the named series as well as the previous 17, 18 and 19th volumes includes romantic dastans such as "Kissa Zhihanshah Tamuzshahugili", "Kissa kozha Gaffan", "Nugyman-Nagymnin kissasi", "Kissa Bakhram".

    All works included in this volume are based on Oriental plots. For example the content of "Kissa Zhihanshah Tamuzshahugili" completely follows the plot of the folklore story "Zhikhanshahtin omiri turaly angime" (Min bir tun. Translation Abdikadirov. -Almaty, 1961, 3 vol.-3-51-b.) from the well known tale cycle "Thousand and one night", the plot "Kissa Bakhram" originates from the famous epopee "Shakhname" written by Firdousi, "Kissa kozha Gaffan" includes several elements of the beautiful tale from "Thousand and one night" - "Story about Sharaman, his son Kamar az-zaman and tzarevna Budur" (Tsarevich Kamar az-Zaman and Tsarevna Budur. Selected tales, stories and novels from "Thousand and one night". Translation of M.A. Salie. Compiling, introductory article and notes of I.M.Filshtinsky. -M., 1986. -P. 3-18, 21-183). The plot of the dastan "Nugyman-Nagymnin kissasy" is also taken from this collection.

    Main content of those works is based on a story about true and devoted love of the young people who have to overcome numerous obstacles, face many adventures before they find their happiness.

    The heroes of those dastans are princes and princesses, the heirs of the rich merchants - usually the only children of the loving parents, they are nice, smart, well raised and noble. The description of the beauty of the heroes in some dastans plays the plot and style forming role. For example, in the dastan "Kissa kozha Gaffan", the hero and heroine are so nice that the genies admiring their beauty are arguing: who of them is more beautiful? In order to settle the argument they bring the girl to the guy. The awaken young people very strongly fell in love with each other.

    Love comes suddenly to the heroes of dastans. For example Bakhram (Kissa Bakhram) first met his beloved Gulandam in a figure of wonderful golden chamois, Zhikhanshah ("Kissa Zhihanshah Tamuzshahugili") fell in love with Shamsibanu, the peri and the daughter of the Tsar from the first sight. She from a pigeon turned into a very beautiful girl. The spiritual condition of the heroes obsessed with passion is typical for the heroes of the romantic dastans and is also described traditionally. The heroes lose their minds, suffer, sometimes forget about their duty of a son, leave their mother land, the throne etc. They are full of desire to overcome all hardships, fight with any enemy because the separation with the beloved is like a death for them.

    The obstacles overcome by the heroes, in general have tale-fantastic character and their rivals are peri, divs, dragons etc. This is regular as the plots of many romantic dastans originate from the tale epos, at the same time "prophetic world " of the dastans is described realistically and naturally.

    Apart from the motive of love that happens suddenly and wonderfully, the plot of those dastans include many various motives: motive of hunting, motive of transformation of people into various animals and vice versa, motive of changing clothes in order to come to the beloved, the deception of the rival, secret doors that lead to the dangerous but interesting adventures, motives of sea voyages with ship-wreck and miraculous rescue of a hero, meeting of the fantastic animals etc.

    "Kissa Zhihanshah Tamuzshahugili", "Kissa kozha Gaffan", "Kissa Bakhram" are created according to a classical scheme, and as it was mentioned before, the tale-romantic interpretation of the motives is typical for them. Dastan "Nugyman-Nagymnin kissasy" is slightly different from this scheme, it misses such motives as love from first sight, search of the beloved, unusual obstacles etc. In general its plot a novelistic character.

    The multivolume collection "Babalar sozi" is a scientific publication. All texts were prepared adequately to the original sources, without any intervention to the text. The volume includes the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textology analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures, heroes of folklore and literary works whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    All texts included into the volume are prepared adequately to the original sources: dastan "Kissa Zhihanshah Tamuzshahugili" from Kazakh publication of 1897. "Kissa kozha Gaffan" from publication of 1880, "Nugyman-Nagymnin kissasy" from the manuscript written in Arabic graphics kept at the Manuscript department of the M.O.Auezov Institute of Literature and Art, Ministry of Education and Science, RK, "Kissa Bakhram" from Kazan edition of 1908.

    Dastan "Kissa Bakhram" was published in 1995 in the collection of folklore texts with reductions and editor's processing, other texts of the volume are published for the first time in Cyrillic.

    The volume includes 21 p.p.

     

    The proposed 21 volume includes dastans of love content such as "Zhaskelen", "Gulnar kyz", "Malikrian, Rabigumulik, kyz Zhamila", "Amirzada", "Kissa shakhizada", "Asylbek pen Gulzhikhannin kissasi".

    Topic of those works is one- to sing of a high and devoted love. However their plots, origins and periods are different. Dastan "Zhaskelen" is based on religious tale-folklore plot. First part of this dastan is composed according to the poetry of Oriental dastan, but it has maximal realistic interpretation of tale-romantic motives. Second part of the dastan, the main plot line of which is based on the escape of the lovers is developed in pure epic way. The type of Ajagoz Zhaskelen's sister is very interesting and is developed according to the canons of the type of virgin-warier and the motive of fighting between brother and sister who didn't recognize each other. The plots of the other dastans included into the volume are based on folklore tales and stories widely represented in many Oriental collections, first of all in "Toty-name" and many volume cycle "Thousand and one night" i.e. the dastans many well known tale-epic plots and motives are widely used for revealing main theme. In those works the good and fairness always win.

    Multi volumes collection "Babalar sozy" - is a scientific edition. The published texts are presented in the original, adequate versions, i.e. any interpretation of the text is excluded.

    The volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; reference data with vocabulary, names, explanation of various foreign terms and notes concerning the names of the religious figures; information on the collectors and performers of the works; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    All dastans except for "Asylbek pen Gulzhikhannin kissasi" ( was published in 1990 in folklore collection) are introduced into scientific circle for the first time.

    The texts were prepared from Kazan publication adequate to the originals.

    Size of the volume is 20 p.p.

     

    The proposed 22 volume of the Collection is a finalizing volume in the series of romantic dastans including eleven works such as "Nazymbek and Kulshe kyzdin zari", "Karga batyr", "Esim - Zilika", "Talaidi kul men Aiym kyz", "Makpal - Segiz" (4 versions), "Zhetim Mariam", "Aisari - Shorman", "Akbope - Sauitbek".

    Dastan "Nazymbek and Kulshe kyzdin zari" is based on traditional folklore plot including such ancient motives as engagement of children who yet haven't been born, husband on the wedding of his wife, bride is choosing bridegroom, book motive of love- diseases that is typical for the dastans written on Oriental plots etc. As for the end, it completely corresponds to typical tale plot i.e. happy end.

    The rest works of the volume are based on real events that took place in XVIII-XIX cc. in different regions of Kazakhstan. In general the following plot is typical for all of them: young people- a young man (usually a poor man) and a girl (usually from rich family) - love each other, but the girl has been engaged with another man (before meeting her beloved or after meeting him): beloved young people decide to escape from their native land, but they fail; the girl is forced to marry unloved bridegroom; death of the heroine because of parting with her beloved.

    In those dastans the traditional prologue is missing that tells about childless parents, birth of a desired successor and celebration of this event, motive of arranging a match of children who yet haven't been born. There is no idea of exalted high love typical for Oriental dastans. The failed escape of the lovers- this is one of the plot forming units within the construction of such works should be considered a digression from laws of lyric-epos. Motive of escape that is explained in the traditional lyric-epos in heroic way, here it gains every day life feature: escape fails and further difficulties (humiliation and insult) caused by the necessity of the forcible marriage of the girl with the unloved man.

    Unlike lyric-epic works and dastans based on Oriental plots with tragic or happy end (the hero and heroine died, the heroine killed herself after her beloved died) in the analyzed dastans the open duel is missing, the heroines are forced to marry and they die from beatings, sorrow for beloved. In such interpretation the time factor have its impact - the epoch of creating of those works is XIX century when clan chiefs couldn't send the disobedient women for execution as it was earlier, they punished them "more softly": husband and his relatives make the life of the woman impossible and they found death as a desired deliverance.

    In all romantic dastans as well as in lyric-epos such as ancient epos ("Kozy-Korpesh-Bayan Slu" or more late ("Kyz-Zhibek") the main theme is love of young people, their struggle for their dream. However conflict in the lyric-epic works doesn't have class character: hero and heroine are at the same hierarchic level. Same feature is typical for Kazakh dastans on Oriental and regional folklore plots. However in the dastans with real plots the motive of social inequality can be seen: main hero belongs to poor class and therefore he can't compete with rich bridegrooms who due to a big kalym (as well as force and threats) can force parents to let their daughters to marry them.

    So, in dastan the epic motive of cruel and brutal father gains social understanding and it is generalized: contradiction between wealth and poor, antagonism of the opposite classes.

    Main hero of those dastans differs from the hero of bogatyr and ancient lyric epos. This is not a brave and mighty bogatyr. There is no hint to this in description of his appearance, behavior and thoughts. However types of the heroes are based on the method of epic idealizing- outlining, underlining of hero's features. In those works the following features of the hero such as akyn, composer, performance skills are idealized as well as high moral-esthetic merits. Poor people who have no horses, poets and composers become heroes.

    Love theme in those dastans is related to the theme of struggle for right for love. This idea determines the interpretation of main heroes of those dastans- unruly, rose, struggling people. Identifying main features of dastan lyric hero it is necessary to outline activeness, meaning first of all activeness of thought but not the behavior and actions unlike in the epos.

    However not all dastans with realistic-historical basis have tragic end. For example in «Karga batyr» and «Esim-Zilika» that are included in this volume, young lovers get married despite all obstacles. It should be noted that plots of those works include novelistic elements, heroes are brave and ready for reckless acts for the sake of love, they are inspirited, quick-witted, adventurous and lucky.

    Volume is prepared according to the principles of publishing series "Babalar sozy". The volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historical-folkloristic and textological analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are included in the texts; vocabulary of old Turkic, Arab and Persian words, terms and ideas and geographic names; information on the collectors and performers of the works; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Dastans «Talaili kul men Aiym kyz» and «Makpal- Segiz» have been published earlier in folklore collections, other works included into the volume are being published for the first time. All texts of the volume are prepared adequately to the original sources.

    Volume includes 20 pp.

     

    The proposed 23d volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in china. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of novelistic content such as "Nazigul", "Nurden men Mariamnin khikayasi", "Altyn balak aksunkar", "Kamarzaman", "Abdikerim", "Senuar patsha", "Berdibek pen Shahizat", "Akijik", "Kairandagan kit".

    Some of their plots originate from the Oriental literary works, other part is based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of folklore samples of the Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 25 p.p.

     

    The proposed 24th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in china. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of novelistic content such as "Sultan patsha", "Akildi Akym", "Akbazargan", "Dastarkan", "Daniar", "Estigul", "Zhetim bala", "Kyz keremeti", "Shaimuza", "Tort gadil", "Zhasartkysh bulak", "Maimil kelinshek".

    Some of their plots originate from the Oriental literary works, other part is based on regional legends and tales.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 21 p.p.

     

    The proposed 25th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in china. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of romantic content such as "Anar-Saule", "Anuar-Kulianda", "Sadik- Salikan", "Bajyn- Zhurek", "Salika-Samen", "Dosan", "Nurtaza men Kunasyl", "Olzha kyz".

    Some of their plots originate from the Oriental literary works, other part is based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 23 p.p.

     

    The proposed 26th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in china. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of romantic content such as "Kozy Korpesh- Bayan Sulu", "Kyz Zhibek", "Dandan men Narkes", "Akhmet pen Nurila".

    Some of their plots originate from the Oriental literary works, other part is based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 23 p.p.

     

    The proposed 27th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of historical content such as "Arkalyk", "Er Zhanibek", "Tautik batyr", "Zhakypberdi batyr", "Boki batyr", "Boke batyr", "Zhantokesh", "Ramazannin kissasi", "Saryayak", "Esimkan, Iriskan".

    Some of their plots are based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 21 p.p.

     

    The proposed 28th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in different historical-social environment.

    This volume includes historical poems (zhyr)such as "Maiky bi", "Kozheke", "Argynbektin zhyri", "Urkin-korkin", "Keshubay-Zhamila", "Er Bulan", "Uan bala", "On segiz", "Kan keshu", "Nuptebektin asy", "Satbek", "Sheitsai", "Sakari".

    Some of their plots are based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 24 p.p.

     

    The proposed 29th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in different historical-social environment.

    This volume includes historical poems such as "Abylai Khan", "El kormaly- er Abylai", "Bogenbai batyr", "Kenesary", "kenesari-Karakas", "Agybai batyr", "Essengeldi".

    Some of their plots are based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 25 p.p.

     

    The proposed 30th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in different historical-social environment.

    This volume includes tale-novel dastans such as "Nurgazarin", "Sagattin khikayasi", "Patsha men ajel", "Syrli kobdi", "Totai sal", "Olgen kyz", "Ular men kuzgin", "Nukh pen nauryz", "Akkan sinap", "Altyn balta", "Galym kyz- Buadat", "Zhunis zhetim", "Karatorgai", "Kenzhekeidin keshirmeleri", "Kumash Konir khikayasi".

    Some of their plots are based on regional legends and tales. In total it is planned to prepare and publish several volumes of the samples of folklore works of Kazakh people living in China.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 21 p.p.

     

    The proposed 31st volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in a different environment.

    This volume includes dastans of tale and novel content such as "Kulamergen", "Aryk mergen", "Abu zhilan", "Telim-tentek", "Eki agajin", "Murat Salikh pen Magripa", "Kokek pen Zeinep", "Koishi batyr", "Sanaly sara", "Saukele", "Boken zhargak", "Bulgin susar", "Ush zhetim", "Ush zhetim kyz", "Kezbe shal", "Khan kukimi".

    Some of their plots are based on the Oriental works, regional legends and tales.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published in China. Regretfully they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. However they have preserved the peculiarities of the folklore of Kazakh people who live in China.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 23 p.p.

     

    M.O. Auezov Institute of Literature and Arts, Ministry of Education, Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing activities on preparation and publishing of the volumes of hundred volume series "Babalar sozy" in the frame of the State program "Medeni Mura" ("Cultural heritage").

    The proposed 32th volume includes folklore of Kazakh people who live in China. About million and a half Kazakh people live in China. Historically it happened so that Kazakh people have left to China, lived there and preserved their native language, customs and folklore. The repertoire of the narrators have preserved almost all plots of common Kazakh epic, tale, song and other creative work. Alongside with them there the plots that have originated in new conditions, in different historical-social environment.

    This volume includes genealogy legends of Kazakh tribes such as "Kazaktin zhalpi shezhireleri", "Kazaktin tup atasi batyr Turik", "Kazakh shezhiresi", "Kazakh tarikhi turali zhyr", "Zghazuga shezhireni aldim kalam", "Aitys shezhiresi", "Ush zhuzdin shezhiresi", "Orta zhuz Naiman shezhiresi" etc.

    Most of the plots tell about genealogical origin of various Kazakh tribes and clans and sub-clans. Texts have been recorded from aksakals who know very well about their genealogy and tell about it from one generation to another.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 23 p.p.

     

    34 volume includes seven historical songs: "Tole bidin tarihi" ("History of Tole-bi"), "Bogenbay batyr", "Abylai turali zhyr" ("Song about Abylai", "Kaldan Seren Abylaidi tutkinga algani" ("About how Kaldan Seren has captured Abylai"), "Abylai khan", "Sabalak-Abylai khan", "Abylai men Olzhabai".

    The historical song "Tole bidin tarihi" tells about the life of Tole bi the well known public figure, famous orator, chief biy of the Senior zhuz, he is described as a leader and organizer of the struggle against Djungar invaders together with other Kazakh batyrs, he contributed much to consolidation of the representatives of three zhuzes near Ordabasy.

    Historical song "Bogenbay batyr" is devoted to the feasts of legendary commander, well known Bogenbai-batyr batyr who lived during the epoch of the ruler Abylai-khan and was very respected among Kazakh warriors and was named "Kanzhigali Bogenbai" that means "Bogenbai from Kanzhigali clan". People respected Abylai khan for his heroic character and contribution as a commander and sang songs during many centuries.

    Although historical songs about Abilay-khan have common theme they have different plots. For example, historical song "Abylai turali zhyr" is devoted to the complicated relations was recorded by C.C.Valikhanov in 1855 and published by Academician A.H.Margulan in 5 volume collection of C.C.Valikhanov in 1961 and later was published in the collection "Abylai khan" (1995) and in the 1 volume of historical songs (1995) devoted to Abylai khan. All texts of this song were prepared adequately to the above mentioned originals.

    The historical song "Kaldan Seren Abylaidi tutkinga algani" tells about a real historical event- capture of Abylai by Kalmyk khan kaldan Seren, historical song "Abylai khan" tells in details about the ancestors of Abylai khan, youth of the future khan, heroic feasts of Abylai and also the plot of the previous song is repeated - history of capturing of Abylai khan during hunting and about how Kazakh rulers and batyrs tried to liberate him, that turned to be a big political problem for Kazakh society of that epoch.

    Historical song "Sabalak-Abylai khan" tells about the youth years of Abylai and the history of the name "Sabalak", artistically depicts the duel of the boy Sabalak and how he became a ruler. The historical song "Abylai and Olzhabay" tells about the strives in Kazakh society, unfair companions of Abylai, the role of batyr Olzhabay in solution of the important moments in the dispute between people and the khan is described.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    All texts included into this volume are published for the first time and are prepared adequately to manuscript originals.

    Volume includes - 25 p.p.

     

    35th volume includes five versions of heroic epos «Kobylandi batyr" that is one of the best epic heritage of Kazakh people. During different versions were recorded from akyns (zhyrshi) and folk narrators. They performed them in accompaniment of folklore musical instrument dombra. They had their own melody for performing epos. For example, the text «Kobylandi batyr zhyry» was recorded by post graduate student Daken Shalabekov from Institute of literature and art, Academy of Science, KazSSR and in 1954 was performed by Kulzak Amangeldiuly resident of Karaganda region. One of the versions of the epos "Kobylandi batyr" was recorded by the member of folklore expedition M.Tleuzhanov in 1958 that was performed by S. Djanbirshiuly resident of Orenburg region.

    The compilers are planning to publish two volumes including all thirty versions of this epos.

    This volume includes heroic-epic poems (zhyr) such as "Kobylandi batyr", "Kobylandi batyr zhyri", "Kobylandi", "Kobylandinin balasi Zhetimtai men Zhetimek turali zhyr".

    The plot of "Kobylandi batyr" is based on ancient legends and heroic motives related to the past life of Kazakh people and their history.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts published in this volume have been published during Soviet period, however, they have been subject to editing and literary processing. Possibly this happened both on the stage of recording texts from the narrators and in the process of re-writing of the manuscripts (possibly several times) as well as during preparation of the texts for publishing. Most texts of this volume are being published for the first time.

    Volume includes 23 p.p.

     

    The 36th volume includes four versions of heroic epos "Alpamis batyr" that is considered as one of the best epic heritage of Kazakh people. During different periods those versions have been recorded from akyns (zhyrshi) and folk story tellers. They told and sang in accompaniment of folk music instrument dombra. Each of them had his melody for performing epos. For example the text "Alpamis batyr" was recorded by the members of folklore expedition of the Folklore Department, Institute of language and literature, Academy of Science of KazSSR in 1953 performed by zhyrshi Kelimbet Sergaziev who lives in South Kazakhstan region. Also one of the versions of "Alpamis batyr" was collected by K.Nurgaliev the student of Abay State Pedagogy Institute in 1954 from the I.Zhusupov the resident of Bulaevsky district in North Kazakhstan region who has recorded the text of this epos from akyn Rakhat in 1934.

    The staff compiling the volume are planning to prepare and publish two volumes including all ten versions of this epos.

    This volume includes poems (zhyr) of heroic-epic content such as "Kissa and Alpamis batyr", "Alpamis batyr kissasi", "Kissa Alpamis", "Alpamis batyr".

    "Alpamis batyr" is based on ancient legends and heroic motives related to the past periods of life of Kazakh people and their history.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    The texts included into this collection have been published during Soviet period but regretfully were subject to some edition and literary processing. This happened obviously both on the stage of recording the texts from the performers and during rewriting of manuscripts (probably repeated) and during preparation of the texts for publishing.

    Most texts of this volume are published for the first time.

    Volume includes 25 p.p.

     

    37th volume includes five versions of heroic epos "Kobylandi batyr" that is an outstanding sample of epic poetry of Kazakh people. "Kobylandi" and "Kobylandi balasynin zhyri" were recorded in 1941 from the narrator Aisi Baitabynov in Oteshsai village, now Kobdinski district, Aktobe region. In people gatherings he has performed heroic eposes "Kobylandi batyr", "Kubygul", "Korogly" and also romantic folklore poem "Kyz Zhibek". «Kobylan» was recorded in 1960 from the narrator Erezhep Tleumagambet Amanzholov in Kongrat district in Karakalpakstan by folklore specialist Kabul Maksetov.

    The compilers are planning to prepare and publish four volumes including all twenty versions of this epos. Among heroic eposes "Kobylandi batyr" is one of the biggest works and some versions include six-nine thousands lines.

    The plot of "Kobylandi batyr" is based on ancient legends and heroic motives related to the past life of Kazakh people and their history.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi", the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    All texts of this volume are published for the first time.

    Volume is 25 pp.

     

    38th volume includes three versions of the heroic epos "Kobylandy batyr" that is one of the best epic works of Kazakh people. All three versions belong to the well known Kazakh zhyrau Mergenbai.

    Among numerous epic monuments of Kazakh people epos "Kobylandy batyr" is the most popular and big work that has many versions. A.Divaev who has described live performance of the epos wrote that "such big legend as "Kobylandy" can be performed in three nights". Some of performers said that they have performed "Kobylandy batyr" during seven and sometimes twelve days and nights.

    The compilers are planning to prepare and publish four volumes including all twelve versions of this epos etc.

    The plot of "Kobylandy batyr" is based on ancient legends and heroic motives linked with the past life of Kazakh people and their history.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    The texts published in this collection have been published in Soviet period and regretfully have been subjected to a certain edition and literary processing. Obviously this happened during record of the texts from the performers and in the process of repeated recording of the manuscripts (possibly continuous) and also during preparation of the texts to publication.

    Most texts of this volume are published for the first time.

    Volume is 23 pp.

     

    This 39th volume includes eight versions of epic works about Edige batyr such as "Edige zhyr", "Myrza Edige batyr", "Er Edige", "Edige-Nuran", "Edige batyr angimesi", "Edige", "Maulimniyaz-Edige", "Edige batyr eposi".

    There are more than thirty versions of epic poems about Edige. As a result of scientific systemizing of those works it was planned to publish one volume of those epic patterns.

    Two versions of "Edige batyr" included into this volume that were performed by the narrators Kalka Zhapsarbayev, Ayakesh Omirzakov earlier haven't been published. Besides versions of epic works Edige batyr that were published during Soviet period have been subjected to editing according to political and social requirements of the epoch, the compilers of this volume set a goal to make no changes in the folklore patterns. As the multi volume collection "Babalar sozi" is a scientific edition the published texts are presented as initial versions adequate to the source i.e. any changes of the text is excluded. Therefore reduced words and mistakes in the previous editions have been corrected during comparison with the original, so initial condition of the texts have been restored.

    They include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

     

    40th volume includes four versions of the heroic epos "Orak-Mamai" that is one of the best works of epic heritage of Kazakh people.

    The plot of "Orak-Mamai" is based on ancient legends and heroic motives related to the past life of Kazakh people and their history.

    The unknown version of the epos "Orak-Mamai" was first published in 1903 in Kazan. The talented scientist, prominent public figure, representative of Alash-Orda movement Khalel Dosmukhamedov has included the mentioned text "Orak-Mamai" without changes into his collection "Alaman". In 1943 other two versions of this epos have been included into school reader for the 8th grades. One of the most interesting versions was recorded in 1942 from the old narrator Muryn zhyrau from Mangystau region. Talented akyn Nurtugan Kenzhegulov from Aral area has performed in traditional style the most extended text of this unique poetic epos. Last record was published in 1992 in the collection of poems of the poet.

    More than ten versions of the epos "Orak-Mamai" have been preserved at the rare foundations of the Central National Library and manuscript department of the M.O. Auezov Institute of literature and art. Most texts of this work haven't been investigated or published.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    The texts published in this collection have been published during Soviet period, however regretfully they were subjected to some edition and literary correction. Obviously this happened during recording the texts from the performers and in the process of rewriting of the manuscripts (probably repeated) and also during preparation of the texts to publication.

    Most of the versions of "Orak-Mamai" haven't been investigated.

    Most texts of this volume are published for the first time.

    Volume is 25 pp.

     

    Volume 41 includes six versions of heroic epos "Karasai-Kazi" that is one of the best epic works of Kazakh people and epic poem "Adil sultan". Epic poem "Karasai-Kazi" is considered as a popular poem because more than thirty texts have conserved till present period. It is notable that this epos exists only in Kazakh people. Among them there are versions that have been included into the repertoire of the great singers such as Murat Monkeuly, Kashagan Kurzhimanuly, Nurpeis Baiganin, Murin Zhyrau Sengirbekuly, Aisi Baitabynov and others. The compilers of this series plan to prepare and publish two volumes of the above mentioned epos.

    Some heroes of Kazakh epic poem "Karasai, Kazi" exist in the epic poem "Adil sultan" ("Adil soltan") which versions have been recorded from folk singers of Nogai, Tatar and Kazakh peoples. The prototype of the main hero of this work-sultan Adil is a son and kalga of Crimea Khan Devletgerei- sultan Adilgerei. In this poem Karasai is one of the closest partners and most reliable persons for Adil, who together with his younger brother are the main heroes of the epos "Karasai Kazi". The fact that in the last work personality and even the name of Kazi the founder and leader of Minor Nogai Horde is not mentioned, some researchers explain that sultan Adilgerei was captured and killed in 1583 and Kazi died in 1576.

    However in the epos "Karasai Kazi" Kazi did all his best to release Adil from capture, he prevents his elder brother from retreat moods in some versions of this epos and in the version recorded by Muryn zhyrau in the first trip of forty Crimean warriors leaded by Khan Adil, Kazi didn't participate and this fact explains why Adil Khan was captured during this trip, in his letter to his native land Adil mentioned the only person who could release him. This batyr was Kazi and he fulfilled Adil's hope.

    Historical sources testify that Kazi and Adilgerei have participated in joint trips of the army of Turkish sultan and Crimean khan, cavalry of Big and Minor Nogai Hordes against Moscow State in 1569 and 1571and that cavalry of Minor Nogai Horde has played the role of the most reliable military power of Crimean khan and military leaders of this State have been selected from Nogai murzas. It means that showing victory of Karasai and Kazi as the result of their heroic deeds in two mentioned epic poems the narrators of those works were truthful. Description of joint trip of Kazi and Adilgerei and the last trip of Adilgerei as the events that took place at the same time in the epic poem "Karasai, Kazi" serves as an example of poly stage character that is typical for many patterns of folklore epos. This work ends with safe return of Adil home but other versions of "Adil soltan" in Nogai and Tatar peoples and in Kazakh manuscript that was found in Saint-Petersburg tell that Adil died in capture. Only in Kazakh version of this poem that was included into collection "Shayir" published in 1910 it is not mentioned that Adil died, in the last lines of this poem that has reached our day as unfinished work, one young batyr tells Adil's mother that he is alive and will soon return home. The fact that in all versions of the epos "Karasai, Kazi" Kazi gives such promise and successfully fulfils his oath shows that the last part of the work that hasn't reach our days repeats the end of the most versions that tell that Karasai and Kazi released Adil. Those and other close links between abovementioned poems have proved our thoughts to include the only version of the epic poem "Adil sultan" into this collection. The above mentioned Kazakh manuscript can't be considered as a pattern of classical epos and therefore it was not included into this volume.

    From six versions of the epic poem "Karasai, Kazi" included into volume 41 of series "Babalar sozi", four versions have been published earlier. These are versions performed by great akyns such as Murat, Kashagan, Nurpeis and others and version that was published as shortened version in the book of Kazakh literature ("Adebiettik oku kitabi") for 5th grade (1944) compiled by I.Karibaev.

    Version of Murat Monkeuly was first published in collection "Murat akyn sozderi" that was published in Tashkent in 1924. This version was published as a separate book under the title "M.Monkeuly. Karasai, Kazi". This version was included into collection "Alkalasa, aleumet" (1991) and also into collections of works of Khalel Dosmukhammedov that were published earlier during different years.

    Version of Nurpeis Baiganin was included into collection of selected works of akyn that was published in 1946.

    Version of Kashagan Kurzhimanuly that his younger cousin remembered was recorded and published by Kabibolla Sysiykuly Candidate of Philology in collection of works "Topan" (1991) written by Kashagan.

    Two versions of the epos "Karasai, Kazi" included into this book are published for the first time. One of them is a version of singer Kudaibergen Shokaev which manuscript is kept now in Central scientific library of the Republic of Kazakshtan. Another version was written from old archive by Mustezhep Akhmetov, Amir Seilkhanuly has presented it to the members of folklore expedition Kidirali Sattarov and Kadisha Kulpibayeva. Therefore we have decided to call it "Mustezhep Akhmetov's version".

    Those six versions can be divided into three options according to the differences in their plot composition. First option includes version of Murat Monkeuly. This option describes deeds of Karasai and Kazi who began fight with the enemy of their father Urak bogatyr who died. Here name of Adil is not mentioned.

    Second option tells how Karasai and Kazi have fulfilled Urak's three dreams. This option includes versions of Kudaibergen Shokaev and Mustezhep Akhmetov.

    Third option is focused on the young khan Adil, Karasai and Kazi.

    Those three options differ from each other on personages. In first option partner of Karasai and Kazi is only warrior Targyn, in second option deeds of khan Adil and other warriors Akhmat, Koyanak, Serik are described. Third option includes description of main heroes and feats of Telagis, Kubigul, Kobylandi, Auez and other warriors.

    In Murat's and Kashagan's versions Kazi fights with Kalmaks and in other versions ethnonym "Kalmak" is changed to ethnonym "kyzylbas".

    All versions of this volume are adequate to the original source and therefore any interference into text is excluded.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Volume - 25 pp.

     

    Volume 42 includes four versions of heroic epos "Karasai-Kazi" that is considered one of the best works of epic heritage of Kazakh people. Epos "Karasai-Kazi" has more than thirty versions widely spread among people. Great Kazakh akyns of XIX century such as Muryn, Kashagan, Aisa, Kobylash, Nurtugan, Murat, Zhaksylik, Kudaibergen and others have performed the patterns of this epos. The compilers plan to prepare and publish two volumes of this epos.

    First volume includes versions performed by such akyns as Murat, Kashagan, Kudaibergen, Toreniyaz, Mustezhep. This volume includes versions of Aisy, Zhaksylik, Seit and version of the unknown akyn recorded in Mangystau region.

    Versions of epos "Karasai-Kazi" included into this volume represent patterns of classic version of the mentioned work. During different periods the collectors of folklore oral creation such as Murat Kusniuly, Gumar Karash, Ygilman Shorekov, Halel Dosmukhameduly, Imanbai Ujikbayev, Kabibolla Sydykov and others have recorded those versions from folk akyns and narrators.

    Plot of "Karasai-Kazi" is based on historical events that took place during epoch of Crimea Khanate and Nogai Horde. Each of those zhyraus told about historical events using their fantasy, adding folklore elements to them. Historical events take place around main heroes Karasai and Kazi. They fought first near Astrakhan and then in Caucasus against Kalmyks and Kyzylbas.

    All versions of this volume haven't been published earlier and are published in initial way adequate to original source and therefore any changes in the text are excluded.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    In Kazakhstan all texts of this volume are published for the first time.

    Volume - 25 pp.

     

    Volume 43 includes one of the popular heroic eposes of Kazakh people- "Kambar batyr". Early records of this epos have been done in the middle of XIX century. In 1888 in Kazan first edition of the epos "Kissa-I- Kambar" based on the record has been made by Valiulla Tukhfatullin in Zaisan. In 1903 in Kazan edited version of "Kissa-I-Kambar"- "Toksan uili tobir" was published. In "Toksan uili tobir" the heroes actions are less motivated by God's will than in "Kissa-I-Kambar". For example there are no such lines as Kudaidin Bergen korikterin (Beauty given to her by God); Buirik bolsa Kudaidan (If God gives...); Allah ozi dem berdi erlerdin isin zhon kordi (God gave him (inspiration), just case of the warrior); Allah sagan amanat bir tapsirip bergenim (God protects you, let's trust in God); Kambar erdin al sonda bir Kudaidan tileuin (Then only God fulfilled wishes of Kambar hero) etc. Ethnonym "Russian" and "unfaithful" in "Kissa-I-Kambar" published in 1888 have been changed into "Kalmak" in Kazan publication of "Toksan uili tobir" of 1903.

    Well known Oriental studies specialist I.N.Berezin in third volume in the second part of "Turkish literature reader" in 1890 in Saint-Petersburg has published one version of the epos "Kambar bahadurdin zhyry" that hasn't been studied and published earlier. In version of Berezin, Christianized Kelmembet has again accepted Islam when he became sure that Kambar batyr is stronger than Kalmak khan.

    Epos "Kambar" was published in 1922 in Tashkent in Arab script included into the series "Batyrlar" prepared by A.Divaev.

    Epos versions recorded and collected during pre-Soviet period are not restricted by the mentioned editions and activities on collection of its versions have been continued during Soviet period. Most of them have been recorded during folklore expeditions in various regions of Kazakhstan.

    More than twenty versions of the epos have been scientifically systemized and main six versions have been selected such as Kazan publication of 1888, Berezin and Divaev publications, versions of Kalkai, Barmak Mukambaiuly, joint version of Shapai Kalmagambetov. In order to demonstrate text changes in Kazan publications the distinctive differences in plot lines in records of Mayasar Zhapakov and Anuar Shokataev, record of Rachmet Mazkhodjaev about poor man Kambar and two prosaic texts have been included into this volume "Toksan uili tobyr".

    Version published by A.Divaev has been several times published during Soviet period. Kazan publication of "Toksan uili tobyr" of 1903, versions of Barmak, Rachmet and tale version of the epos have been published in scientific edition in 1959, the rest seven versions are published for the first time.

    Resolutions on political mistakes in Soviet Union have also reached Kazakh epos. Resolution of CK of Communist Party of Kazakhstan from 21 January 1947 "On serious political mistakes in the activities of Institute of language and literature at AS KazSSR" first edition of the first volume "History of Kazakh literature" under edition of M.O.Auezov was subject to criticism. In Kyrgyzstan- "Manas", in Tatarstan-"Edige", in Turkmenistan- "Book about Dade Korkut", in Uzbekistan- "Alpamys" have been subjected to criticism and as a result above mentioned eposes have been prohibited. Epic heritage in our country has also been subjected to revision on political aspects. In the beginning of 50th historical poems of Kenesary Kasymov have been prohibited. After discussions about Kazakh epos organized by Presidium of AS KazSSR in 1953 from big epic heritage of the people the eposes "Kambar" and "Er Torgyn" have left. Folklore works have been investigated based on principle of literature, special attention was paid to ideal content and topic of the work, main personages have been considered only according class-social aspect.

    Analysis of numerous works conserved at manuscript foundations of "Kambar" versions show that the work is based on the same plots and motives i.e. plot line of the main versions of the epos doesn't differ. For all versions the description of the hero as a batyr is typical. In the epos the motive of miracle birth of the hero is missing. Only in Divaev's version some traces of the motive of birth and growth of batyr have been considered. Kambar batyr having learnt about enemy's invasion doesn't immediately start his trip, he went hunting and took care about feeding ninety house village.

    Choice of the intended man of the only daughter of the khan, her demands to him (bogatyr features), mothers care of the batyr's horse, mother's blessing before the trip, traces of old matriarchy customs and traditions exist in all versions of the epos. Traditional appeal of Nazym to Kambar "Kara kaska atti Kambar-ai, kara atinda zhal bar-ai " ("Kambar, on a black bold horse, your black horse has a mane ") exists in all versions even in prosaic (tale) epos versions.

    Versions have some differences concerning the origin of batyr. Kambar according to Berezin version comes from Uak clan and according to Kalkai and Divaev's version he comes from Argyn clan. According to Bayandin record, Betege is Kambar's father and he was named so because he was found in the bushes. According to Rachmet's record, he was a poor man with one horse who was hunting to feed his relatives. According Shokatai record Kambar's father is a khan and Azimbai father of Nazym slu is aspiring to take his throne and that's why is against batyr's marriage.

    The epos composition is built so that in the beginning of the epos the toi is described during which Nazym slu should choose the only worthy intended man and in the end of the toi (fest) Nazym slu has married Kambar who has won enemy and released Nogaily people and ninety houses village from Kalmyk suppression.

    Various versions of the epos have been consequently recorded from akyns and zhyrshi. In 1941 the Union of writers of Kazakhstan has specially invited Shashubai Koshkarbaiuly to Almaty from Balkhash to arrange recording of works. Akyns S.Seitov and A.Tazhibaev have recorded live performance of the epos and in 1942 the collection of akyn's works "Soile, Shasheke" was published. In February 1958 Academician M.O.Auezov has approved the invitation to the Institute of the well known zhyrau Rachmet Mazkhodjaev from Kzylorda, repertoire of the akyn has been recorded both on paper and tape. Also during different periods the staff of the Institute of literature have made record from zhyrshi Kulzak Amangeldin and Kelimbet Sergaziev.

    Scientific publication of the epos edited by M.O.Auezov and N.S.Smirnova was published in 1959. N.S.Smirnova and M.Gumarova have prepared the edition. Scientific edition of the epos was prepared in two languages-Russian and Kazakh. Since that time almost half century has passed. During Soviet period texts of the epos "Kambar" in scientific and popular editions have been changed, editor's amendments have been done and present edition includes texts that are initial, adequate to the original texts.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    For this edition most texts have been prepared based on the original that is kept at manuscript foundations of Central scientific library and M.O. Institute of literature and art.

    Volume 22 pp.

     

    Volume 44 of the above mentioned series is devoted to the classical heroic eposes. This volume includes epic poems "Er Targyn", "Er Kokshe", "Sayin batyr", "Karabek batyr".

    The content of the epic poem "Er Targyn" is based on historical events that happened during Nogaily period that plays important role in the epoch of national development of Kazakh people. Several versions of the above mentioned epos have been conserved. It is known that one of the widely known highly artistic patterns of this epic poem is Marabai's version. Written record of this version of epic poem "Er Targyn" performed by the singer himself was made by Russian missioner N.Ilminsky in 60th of XIX century and it was published in 1862 at publishing house "University" in Kazan. Epic poem "Er Targyn" has been re-published about twenty times (versions of A.Divaev, K.Imanov, N.Nurgaliuly, Z.Bekarystanov, N.Sarkin and others). Some of them have collected patterns of Marabai's versions from people and have published them, others have performed epos inserting additions and enriching its content. The proposed volume includes versions of Ospan Kisykuly and Nurkasym Nurgaliuly except for Marabai's version that was published in Kazan.

    Epic poem "Er Kokshe" included into this collection is known since ancient period. This epic poem refers to those works that are the components of the famous cycle "Forty Crimean warriors". Versions of this epos recorded in performance of Muryn zhyrau collected by V.Radlov, M.Z.Kopeev, B.Sarimanov are kept at the manuscript foundation. This volume of the series "Babalar sozi" includes the pattern of this version of epic poem about Er Kosai the son of warrior Kokshe collected by Asaiyn Khangeldin. This pattern of classical heroic epos also belongs to the epic cycle "Forty Crimean warriors". The existence in the history of Kazakh epos of such cycles as "Anshybai", "Parpariya", "Kuttikiya", "Edige", "Nuradyn", "Musa khan", "Orak-Mamai", "Karasai, Kazi", "Shyntas-Torekhan", "Kobylandi", "Bokenbai" where the main hero of the first work is the father of the main hero of the next work shows that there were dynasties of hereditary warriors in the glamour history of our ancestors.

    Versions of epic poem "Er Sayin" that were collected by A.Baitursynov, M.Z.Kopeev, R.Ignatiev, K.Imanov are kept now at manuscript foundations of Central National Library and Institute of Literature and Art.

    One more pattern of Kazakh classical heroic epos that was prepared for publication in volume 44 in the series "Babalar sozi" is "Karabek batyr". As in all other works included into this volume, epic poem "Karabek batyr" describes historical events of Nogaily epoch. Two versions of this epic poem included into this collection have been earlier published but were not investigated as a special research topic. One of them was published in 1882 in Kazan city by Maulekei Umashev citizen of Bashkiria and the second version was recorded in 1940 by Marat Akhmetov resident of Aral region in performance of the famous zhyrau Zhanabergen Bitimbaiuly. From the mentioned versions of the epos "Karabek batyr" the recent one differs in volume and high artistic merits. Possibly the relative of the mentioned singer-narrator, prominent poet, creator and performer of the original versions of many remarkable epic poems Nurtugan Kenzhegululy, was involved into the activities on improvement of this version that includes 6720 lines. Main thing is that two versions of the epos "Karabek batyr" included into this book have been compared with manuscript materials and as a result of such work, those parts of the versions that were missing in the previous editions have been restored.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Volume is 25 pp.

     

    Volume 45 includes one of the popular heroic eposes of Kazakh people - "Shora batyr" that belongs to common heritage of Kipchak language group of Turkic peoples. This work has existed for a long time as oral tradition of these peoples and therefore significant differences between its national versions have appeared.

    Until 30th of XX century almost everybody knew the content of this epos. After Great Patriotic War in 1947-1953 national eposes have been considered as "remnants of feudal ideology". In the end of 50th when several heroic eposes were rehabilitated, "Shora batyr" was still a "closed topic". Despite of this many versions of this epos have been published in Turkey, Romania, Poland. Researchers from these countries were interested in this epos.

    One of the versions of this epos "Kissa-I-Nariktin ugly Shora batyr" was published in 1884 in Kazan. In 1922 A.Divaev has published two versions of the epos "Shora batyr" in the series "Batyrlar", one of them was prosaic epos. In 1932 and 1939 writers S.Seifulin and S.Mukanov have published these texts for the second time. Such researchers as M.Auezov, S.Seifullin, K.Zhumaliev, S.Mukanov, B.Kenzhebayev, A.Orlov have been investigating epos "Shora batyr". During 70th of XX century Kazakh scientists R.Berdybayev and A.Ospanuly wrote articles to justify the epos.

    Plots and episodes of "Shora batyr" are based on historical events. Many heroes have historical prototypes. Epos "Shora batyr" reflected main historical events of XV-XVI centuries and internal political and economic conditions of Kazan, Crimea, Nogay, Horde, Astrakhan khanates and relations with Russia. For example, in the versions recorded from Nogay and Tatar singers and in Kazakh version performed by M. Aliakbaruly epic archaic feature is prevailing, although Karakalpak, Kyrgyz and three Kazakh versions included into this collection represent patterns of classical version of mentioned work included into epic cycle "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri".

    This volume includes selected versions of epos:

    "Kissa Nariktin ugly Shora batyr" published by M.Aliakbaruly in 1884 in Kazan. "Ertedegi Shora batyr" was recorded in 1885 by the assistant of the Head of Kazalinsk district E.A.Alexandrov from Mussabai zhyrau. The distinguishing feature of this version is that it has lots of tale motives. "Kissa Narikbai-Shora" was recorded from folklore akyn A.Sariev. This text almost coincides with version recorded by M.Sandybayev. "Er Shora" was recorded by Molda Mussa. The version was first published by A.Ospanuly in 1995.

    According to the principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the volume has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms, notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Volume is 25 pp.

     

    Volume 46 of a series is devoted to the heroic eposes.

    It includes Kazakh heroic eposes "Karasai-Kazi", "Torekhan", "Bogen batyr". It is known that more than 10 versions the epos "Karasai-Kazi" have been published earlier that are included into two volumes (volumes 41, 42). The selected patterns of the epos which haven't been included into the first edition are included into this edition - versions of Mangystau singer - storyteller Kobylash Bekmagambetov and Aral singer Nurtugan Kenzhegululy. The volume includes also patterns of the epos "Torekhan"as a version of the well known national akyn Nurpeis Baiganin, and version of the epos of the unknown zhyrau recorded from people by folklore specialist Bisen Sarimanov.

    The collection includes two variants of the epos "Bogen batyr", created on the basis of motives of ancient Kazakh-Nogay historical legends. Storytellers of these two variants are unknown. They have some distinctions in a plot and the names of the heroes are changed. In the epos there are names of the historic figures who lived during the times of Altyn Horde, Nogay khanate and ancient names of district and areas such as Ural, Atyrau, Aktobe located on the territory of the mentioned states (Zhiren- lake, Elek etc.). It is quite probable, that this epos has created and disseminated by representatives of zhyrau school that was established and was developing in the western areas of Kazakhstan. Epos "Bogen batyr" includes steady motives: wonderful birth of the child, a choice of suitable name for a batyr, struggle for the bride, wives - competitors etc. Kobylash's variant of the epos "Karasai-Kazi", B.Sarimanov's variant of the epos "Torekhan" and the second variant of the epos "Bogen batyr" performed by the unknown akyn haven't been published yet.

    Leitmotif of a plot of the mentioned eposes - critical events in the history of Nogay-Kazakhs in XI-XVII centuries, tragic period of collapse and final disintegration of the centre of Zhoshi khan. But the contents of heroic epos doesn't always coincide with exact historical events because Kazakh epos frequently was exposed to changes inevitably brought by representatives of several generations of steppe performers. The most part of the epos texts has been added with folklore and mythical motives.

    The texts of the epos included in the present volume are prepared on the basis of the originals kept in manuscript foundation of ILA and rarity foundation of CNL of RK.

    According to main principles of the edition "Babalar sozi" the forty sixth volume is supplied with scientific supplements which include data on published texts; the dictionary; names of the places; data about historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in texts; data on storytellers and collectors; the list of the used literature; the summary in Russian and English languages.

    Size of volume - 25 pp.

     

    Volume 47 of the series presented to the readers is devoted to heroic eposes. It includes five variants of the epos about a narration and heroic life of Turkmen beks-batyrs such as Bozuglan, Zhusip and Akhmet. Variants of Eshbai Kozbergenuly, Bazaar zhyrau, the unknown storyteller, Azimbai Bizhanuly, Abdimurat Konirbaiuly.

    Kazakh Eshbai Kozbergenuly (unfortunately, there is no information about his origin) has translated one of the variants of the epos from ancient edition and has issued the separate book in 1890 in Kazan. In the text of the works there are lots of ancient Turkic, Chagatai, Arabic-Persian words. Probably the translator has tried to tell Turkmen dastan issued on Chagatai language in cities of Tashkent or Kazan in "Turkic" style which was at that time understandable to all Kazakhs. It is known that the first edition of the epos " Bozuglan, Akhmetbek ham Zhusipbek " in Kazakh language was written as a poem with elements of prosaic retelling. Kazakh rulers who were interested by the plot of this initial variant have ordered to make interlinear text translation by the competent subordinate and later have asked well known, talented storytellers - zhyrau to perform it with accompaniment of dombira and kobyz. One of the beautiful national eposes "Zhusip-Akhmet" was performed by the most talented master of a word whose name was Bazar.

    It is necessary to note that a subject of leitmotif of kissa "Akhmetbek-Zhusipbek" found in Kostanai folklore expedition (1939) does not differ strongly from the contents of Kazan edition.

    As a whole typical phenomenon for folklore variants of the earlier published dastans - later " couldn't change the words of the book". It can be observed on the example of the epos "Kyz Zhibek " published in the end of XIX century in Kazan. It is known that "Taiburyl's gallop" in the epos "Kobylandi" in its numerous variants is repeated without changes. On the one hand, we can say that it is a usual, traditional motive - method frequently met in folklore genres.

    One more variant of the epos "Bozyglan" that was sung by poet Azimbai who has brought some motive and episode changes into the content of the book variant of the epos and freely performed epos in regional dialect of local Kazakhs. The second pattern of the epos "Bozuglan" has been written from Karakalpak Kazakhs. The story teller is Abdimurat Konirbaiuly. What is interesting, here the theme of the epos coincides with other variants, but the plot of the works is absolutely different. On the contrary, variant of Abdimurat strongly reminds the well known Kazakh epos "Kobylandi batyr", even in some places episodes are repeated. However there are significant distinctions in the names of people, geographic names, ethnonyms.

    Some words about the original of the epos "Zhusip-Akhmet". Its founder is a well known Turkmen poet-bakhchi Gurbanaly Magrupi who lived in XVIII century. Well known scientist - specialist in folklore H.Korogly refers the work of Turkmen bakhchi to the written literature and notes that Magrupi could observe lots of materials, beginning from ancient epoch of Oguzes and has kept basic elements of traditions of national literature, and the description of events has been subjected to insignificant ideological, stylistic and language changes. The researcher further notes that dastan "Zhusip-Akhmet" has a patriotic theme.

    The events that serve as a basis of a plot have their origin in the period Turkic kaganate and in middle of the epos the inter clan conflicts of time of Ogyz-Kypchaks are described. Also difficult historical events in Central Asia of XVI-XVII centuries are shown. H.Korogly who has found some plots of "Zhusip-Akhmet" in the book "Korkyt ata" makes the following conclusions: " There is a plot unity between the third "Oguzname" and dastan "Jussup and Akhmet". Heroes of both monuments have been captured by gyaurs under identical circumstances, term of their imprisonment coincides. Both heroes have amused jailers with the songs. In both cases during the absence of the heroes some people tried to arrange marriage of their wives. In the end of both monuments the heroes do not consider that they have a right to join their beloved while their friends are in captivity...". The Researcher tries to find similarity between image of Bozuglan who is a relative of Zhusup-Akhmet on mother's side, ruler Isfakhan and image of Bamsi from dastan "Korkyt" and assumes that the prototype of these heroes can be the leader of a tribe baindir Turkmen people, akkoinli Turalybei (under a pseudonym " Bozdogan" (Boz karshiga) who was managing a fortress in Minor Asia.

    The author considers that later ozons, bakhchi did not understand the meaning of the word Bozdogan and have named him Bozoglan. In our opinion name Bozuglan quite possibly could have originated from ethnonym "boz ok" that is mentioned in book Korkyt.

    Some episodes of eposes " Korugly", "Alpamis", "Kobylandi" and "Orak-Mamai" in this epos are repeated. These episodes have been added with different folklore motives.

    For example, Azerbaijan scientist H.Korogly who has first investigated Turkmen epos, notes that in dastan "Zhusip-Akhmet" there are elements of the epos of western Oguzes and among Uzbeks the dastan is performed in parallel with "Alpamis".

    Speaking about the common similarity of the epos "Bozuglan" and " Orak Mamai" performed by Muryn zhyrau, A.Konratbaev makes to the following conclusion: "Similar plots have appeared during ancient times when all Turkic tribes have wandered together. This centuries-old unity, relationship was included in eposes serving as a basis of the origin of numerous legends and the mixed plots. In Uzbek epos "Bozuglan" and epos Muryn zhyrau Kazakh and Uzbek batyrs are described in traditional unity. They help each other.

    These A.Konratbaev's thoughts are conformable with opinion of the well known specialist of epos studies F.Zhirmunsky who in his big work about Turkic eposes wrote: " Variant of Murun zhyrau represents the story about the heroic childhood of their future glorious bogatyrs. His source was the Khoresm-Turkmen military story "Jussuf-Akhmed" (or "Boz-oglan"), widely spread in Central Asia as a popular folk book ("kissa") ... - all these motives from history of Jussuf and Akhmed have been transferred by Murun (or one of his(its) teachers) on Orak and Mamai".

    Development of the epos proceeded for long years. Scientist specialist in folklore studied V.J.Propp, listing a rich heritage of eposes of Central Asia, proves that their plots have appeared before the period of establishment of the state. Actually similar motives of ancient Oguz epos and Nogaili heroic epos show that plots of this heritage originate from one source. Confirmation of this can be B.N.Putilov's statement: "As it was mentioned above the idea of change of two stages representing big changes in historical life of people is typical for classic epos. This idea has been purely represented in two thematic oppositions: " fathers - sons, the senior bogatyrs - younger bogatyrs ".

    As we can see, even if Bozuglan belongs to heroes of patriarchal epos, his name is mentioned in parallel with Korogly and Zhusipbek, Akhmetbek who lived in the late period as a parent, as a relative on mother's side or as the teacher. The vivid example of this genealogic relationship of heroes is put in a basis of the epos "Kirimnin kirik batyri". Concerning this folklore phenomenon Academician S.Kaskabasov has his argument point of view, underlining the need of epic genre in a certain historical period when people faced danger, especially during big fights - wars. The epos was constantly recreated and supplemented with new plots, its contents was specified. Thus the new eposes have appeared. As the scientist has noted " in such cases a process of historical integrity develops quickly, and events of ancient time are transferred to the later periods, the place of the old enemy is occupied with the new opponent, sometimes they mix up. The old batyrs are forgotten, their act, heroism are attributed to the new hero, in some eposes they go in parallel, but the batyr of late epoch is depicted a special, or he is his son ".

    Language of the eposes included into this volume is figurative and plots are interesting. While reading the texts the reader gets precise idea about their stylistic features, expressions and local features of language of epic schools of storytellers - poets from different areas of Kazakh steppe. Many of proposed variants of the epos "Bozuglan, Akhmetbek ham Zhusipbek" haven't been published earlier and haven't been investigated and this fact determines scientific value of the epos.

    Forty seventh volume of a series of the edition "Babalar sozi" according to main principles of many volume edition is supplied with scientific supplements. Scientific supplements include comments on published texts; the dictionary; geographic; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned in texts; data on storytellers and collectors of the epos; list of the used literature; summary in Russian and English languages.

    Volume of volume - 22,5 pp.


    1 E.M. Meletinsky. Hero of fairy tale. - M., 1958. - P.10.

    2 S.F. Oldenburg. Fablio of Oriental origin. III// JMNP. New series. Part IX. -1907. № 5. P. 49.

    3 Jataka - story about previous existence of Buddha. Consolidation of the study of Buddha and arrangement of it into three part holy canon took place during the first gatherings of Buddhists (in 483, 383 and 250 years B.C.). Complete version of Buddhist canon was preserved on in Pali language: Pali version jatak, under the title "Tipitaka" was recorded in the I c. B.C. included 547 jataks.

     * I.S. Braginskiy. From history of the Tadjik and Persian literature. M. 1972, p.251.

    [1] S. Eleukenov, Z.Shalginbaeva . ²àçຠkitaptarinin tarihi - Алматы: Санат, 1999. - p.100.

    1 Min bir tun. Translation Abdikadirov. -Almaty, 1961, 3 vol.-3-51-b.

    2 Tsarevich Kamar az-Zaman and Tsarevna Budur. Selected tales, stories and novels from "Thousand and one night". Translation of M.A. Salie. Compiling, introductory article and notes of I.M.Filshtinsky. -M., 1986. -P. 3-18, 21-183.

     

     Volume 48 of the mentioned series, proposed for readers attention includes works  devoted to Korogly warrior feastsб who was defending deprived people, fought for fairness.

    Epos "Korugly" has been recorded in the epic repertoire of many peoples having different ethnic, religious and linguistic bases, different culture and ethnic genesis: Kazakh, Turkish, Azeri, Armenian, Georgian, Uzbek, Turkmen, Tadjik, Kurds, Tatar people and others.

    First information on Korugly as an active participant of upraising of peasants and city poor people in South Azerbaijan, Minor Asia and first records of songs about him refer to the second half of XVII century and already in the first half of XIX century the epos became the object of attention for travelers, history specialists, philologists and others. Such researchers as B.A.Karryev, I.S.Braginsky, V.M.Jirmundsky, H.T.Zarifov, A.K.Borovkov, I.N.Berezin, H.T.Korogly, A.N.Boldyrev, M.G.Takhmasib, K.M.Maksetov, M.Muradov, R.Amonov, G.Namazov, M.F.Koprulu and others have contributed much to the studies of national versions of the epos.

      Their works highlight issues of genesis, sources and peculiarities of formation of the epos, transformation of the image of main hero has been observed within the process of formation of the epos etc. Many versions have been studied within comparative aspect. For example it was determined that the events that took place in XVI-XVII centuries in South Azerbaijan and Minor Asia served as the historical background for composing multi-lingual epos, during the epoch when Turkmen-Oguz and Azerbaijan peoples lived together such as the following events: peoples upraising in Tokat (1518), Tebriz (1571-1572), Shirvan (1577-1578), Talysh (1580-1581) and others; on the basis of these real events already in XVI century many folklore works have been composed where Korugly - the peoples avenger, quick rider,  poet and musician has  become the  main hero; these various genre works have become the basis for many multi lingual versions that are rather independent and autonomous but genetically relating to South Azerbaijan versions of the stories about brave Korugly, the leader of anti feudal upraising. At the same time it is obvious that there existed more ancient legends and tales spread in the former motherland of Turkmen-Oguz people (Syr-Daria and Amu-Daria rivers basin and Aral Sea area) and many national versions of "Korugly" that were transferred by them to Caucasus and Minor Asia  beginning from XI century are forming two branches: 1) Azerbaijan branch that includes Armenian, Kurd, Georgian and Turkish versions; these versions in general are forming Western branch; 2) Central Asian branch that includes Turkmen, Kazakh, Uzbek, Tadjik, Karakalpak, Tobol-Tatar versions.

    Western versions of the stories about peoples avenger Korugly have preserved more truthful  historical basis in comparison with Central Asian texts with strongly changed plots in accordance with epic traditions of these people[1].

     *   *   *

     In Kazakhstan the epos about Korogly is widely spread and well known in all regions of the country; in the manuscript foundations of CNL of MES RK and M.O.Auezov Institute of literature and arts more than twenty texts of the works dedicated to Korugly and his descendants are kept.

    Among creators and narrators, collectors and publishers of the works about Korugly and his descendants are Jambul Jabayev, M.Kopeev, R.Mazkhozhaev, H.Mirbabin, K.Oteshov and others.

     One of the versions of the epos "Khikayat Korugly sultan" was first published in 1885; then this text was published several times in  1890, 1895, 1905, 1906, 1909, 1915 [all publications in Arabic script). During Soviet period the scientific edition of the epos was done [1973, 1989].

    Numerous Kazakh dastans about Korugly and their versions represent the completed cycle that has common feature- image of  Korugly and his worderful horse Girat and reflects main motives and episodes of the epic biography of Korugly and his descendants who continue his feasts, that are common for many foreign versions. In them we can observe epization and mythologization of the plot, inclusion of various motives, extension of the plot and circle of personages, transformation and complication of the image of main hero etc. 

    This volume includes nine dastans such as: "Raushanbek", "Koruglynin korde tugani", "Girat zhaiyi, Koruglynin Raikhan arabpen sogisi", "Koruglynin Shagdatka bargani", "Korugly sultan oleni", "Khikayat Korugly sultan", "Ushbu Gauazkhannin kissasi-dur", "Kissa Gauazkhan", "Turkmen Kasymkhan".

     Multi volume collection "Babalar sozi" is a scientific edition. Published texts are presented as initial, adequate to the original text without any interference  to the text.

    The volume  has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned  in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic, Arabic and Persian words, terms,  notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and  publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

     

    All texts included into this volume are based on original sources. 

    Volume size - 28,5 p.p.


    [1] B.A.Karryev. Epic legends about Ker-ogly in Turkic language peoples. - М. 1968. - С. 42-43; H.G.Korogly. Linkages of the epos of Central Asia, Iran and Azerbaijan peoples. Chief editor V.M.Gatsak. - М. 1983. - С. 169-84.

      Volume 51 is devoted to heroic eposes.

    This volume includes one of the voluminous and elegant  eposes of Kazakh people such as "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri". Text of the epos included into the list of selected world folk works was recorded in the beginning of XX century. In 1940 Academician K.I.Satpaev, Head of National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan has proposed the literary studies specialist Assayin Khangeldin to travel to Mangistau, to Shevchenko town and visit Muryn zhyrau and record his repertoire. In 1942 despite severe period of Great Patriotic War, thanks to the assistance of the patrons of national literature such as N.Sauranbayev, E.Izmailov,  who have invited Muryn zhyrau to Almaty, 36 eposes included into the cycle "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri" have been recorded. The well known specialist in the field of history and literature such as E.Izmailov, M.Khakimzhanova, O.Nurmagambetova have been involved in the recording of the epos text.

     Regretfully the initial version of the epos "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri" was not recorded because all performers-narrators of legendary epic, have passed away. However the fragments of the epos recorded from Muryn zhyrau are considered the most valuable spiritual heritage of not only Kazakh people but of the whole humanity. It is a well known fact that during Soviet period the epos "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri" like other Kazakh eposes was insufficiently studied and it was prohibited for  publication. Only in 80th of XX century the epos was included into the collection of Kazakh oral literature and was first  presented to the readers attention.

    Plot of the epos "Kyrymnin kyryk batyri" is devoted to praising of heroic life of Edige who was a founder of Nogai Horde, prominent commander and public figure, historical person who lived in the end of XIV- beginning of XV centuries and his descendants. Epic images of Timur the ruler of Mavrenahr and Toktamyskhan the ruler of Altyn Horde have also been  colorfully described. Some chapters of the epos tell about the invasion of the historical images such as Er Targyn, Aisa uly Akhmet, Kobylandy, Torekhan, Adil sultan, who were not relatives of Edige. The theme of valuable folklore work in which ancient epos motives and historical events are combined- is the protection of the peace in the country, the Motherland and respect to heroism.

    According to the main principles of multi volume edition, volume fifty one of the series "Babalar sozi"  has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts; vocabulary of geographic names; data on historical and religious figures;  data on narrators and  collectors; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Volume size is  23 pp.             

     

    Volume 52 (fifty two) that is proposed for the readers' attention is devoted to archaic eposes.

    In general the epos being based on the depths  of mythological syncretism was developed from archaic forms to realistic-historical forms, passing on this long way through a number of regular phases. As the researchers have proved, the epic archaic system as a system, as a historically formed  way of explanation of the world cannot be  restored during folklore creation but it serves as a basis, a source of appearance and development of all further phase-typology forms.

    Kazakh archaic epos that has appeared during ancient times, has reached nowadays in the records made in the second half of XIX century in the interpretations of the akyns and zhyrshi who created in the frame of the epic tradition of their period, i.e. not in their original way but having undergone significant changes, sometimes significantly transformed. But archaic plots formed during ancient period have generally preserved their constants and dominants and their deep meaning. They discover their genetic links with ancient ideas of our ancestors and important public institutions of their period.

     This volume includes such eposes as "Khikayat risala Munlik, Zarlik", "Kissa Kulamergen", "Kissa Dotan Kubakanbaiugli", "Kubygul".

    First three works have been published during pre-October period of Kazakhstan history. For example, "Khikayat risala Munlik, Zarlik" was first published in 1896 and was published ten times till 1917. "Kissa Dotan batyr" has been also published several times since 1903 till 1917. Both texts have been prepared and published by Z.Sheikhulislamov who has contributed much to the collection and publishing of the patterns of Kazakh folklore literature. "Kissa Kulamergen" has been published during pre-October period only twice: in 1906 and 1909. "Kubygul" was recorded in 1941from the well known akyn -epic and zhyrshi Nurpeis Baiganin.

    In XX century eposes have been published in the scientific-popular series with significant cuts and have been subject to editors correction.

    Multivolume collection "Babalar sozi" is a scientific edition. The published texts are presented in the initial way, adequate to the original i.e. any interpretation of the text is excluded.

     The volume  has scientific supplements which include the following: data on published texts and their versions; brief historic- folklore and textologic analysis of the texts; data on historical and religious figures whose names are mentioned  in the texts; vocabulary of the old Turkic , Arabic and Persian words, terms,  notions and geographic names; data on narrators of folk tales, collectors and  publishers; list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

    Texts of the eposes proposed to the readers' attention have been prepared as adequate to the originals that are kept at the foundation of manuscripts and rare books of the Central scientific library of the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan. Volume size: 19 pp.  

     

     The proposed  volume 53 of the mentioned series is devoted to the eposes of romantic (love) content.

    Everyone knows that "Kyz Zhibek" is one of the oldest eposes representing outstanding value for Kazakh people. More than 15 versions of the epos being told orally from generation to generation have reached nowadays.

    Kazakh folklore is distinguished with a huge number of epic stories. More than hundred thousands of heroic and romantic eposes with various volumes and artistic forms have been conserved in various scientific libraries and manuscript foundations. Epos "Kyz Zhibek" is considered as one of the pearls of Kazakh folklore and incomparable patterns of romantic epos. It has special poetic merits; according to the narration form and richness of the verse the epos "Kyz Zhibek" precedes all other eposes.  It really worth that  500th Anniversary of its creation to be included into the list of jubilee dates, celebration of which the UNESCO is planning to organize on International level.

    Plot of the epos "Kyz Zhibek" exists during several centuries among Kazakh people as folklore tales, legends and small eposes. However the text of the epos has been recorded only in the beginning of the second half of XIX century. To be more accurate 120 years ago in 1887 when Russian officer E.A.Alexadrov who served in Kazalinsk fortification has recorded the text "Kyz Zhibek" from local akyn Musabai zhyrau and with the help of his colleague M.Agymanov who was the police man has organized its translation into Russian language. This valuable version of the epos "Kyz Zhibek" was found in 1959 in the personal foundation of  N.I.Grodekov the well known Turkic studies specialist at Central Historical Museum in Moscow by Malike Gumarova the outstanding researcher of textology, senior researcher of the M.O.Auezov Institute of literature and art. During the same period the version of the epos from Musabai zhyrau was recorded by I.V.Anichkov the folklore specialist, Russian officer. He wrote in details about this in his article "Visit to Kyrgyz remembrance" (1897).

    One more version of the epos was published in 1894 in Kazan and was prepared for publication by the unknown citizen- Nogay man. The publisher in the end of the epos noted: "... Being a person of  Nogay nationality I wrote it in Kazakh language and dedicated this epos to my friend Akhmetkerim". We know that this unknown version of the epos was published several times during 1895, 1896, 1899. Later in 1900 one more graceful version of the epos was published by the well known publisher Zhusupbek-Khozha Shaikhislamuly at the publishing house "University" in Kazan. After this Zhusupbek's version of  the epos "Kyz Zhibek", it was published 10 times before October Revolution and during Soviet period.

    Best patterns of this great epos were widely disseminated in Kazakh steppe. New versions of the epos "Kyz Zhibek" except for Musabai's version have been recorded from Rakhmet Mazkozhayev (1959), Abilkhair Danekerov (1954), Kuanish Baimagambetov the talented poets zhyrshi from Syrdaria area. These versions have been investigated in 1963 during preparation of the first scientific edition of "Kyz Zhibek" and were used in restoration of the epos text.

    In performing the epos "Kyz Zhibek" the narrators from Kustanai, Torgai and Aktubinsk regions were actively involved. This can be proved by the epos versions recorded from Khakim Dosmagambetuly (1930), Aliakbar Doszhanov (1947) the residents of Kustanai region and two versions of the well known narrator Shapai Kalmagambetov from Aktubinsk region that were given to the archive by the author. The epos versions collected by Kayirgali Imanov (1940) resident of Uralsk, Khalima Utegaliyeva people's singer (1950), Moldaseit Tolepkaliyev (1940), Kassym Myrzagaliyev, Erzhan Akhmetov (1959) also play important role in propaganda and restoration of popularity of the epos "Kys Zhibek". Several versions have been recorded taken from South Kazakhstan (1953), from Karaganda region (1955). These versions of the epos "Kyz Zhibek" as well as the other versions have been presented and investigated in the scientific edition of 1963. These versions included into 10 volume edition of Kazakh folklore in China have been included into 25th  volume of the hundred volume Collection of Kazakh folklore "Babalar Sozi". It should be noted that many versions of the epos are similar to the version published by Zhusupbek (1900). Each of the narrators makes changes only in the introduction and the end of the epos, but the content of the main part is without changes.

    Among these versions the version of Shapai Kalmagambetov from Aktubinsk has special importance. In 1955 the talented student of the well known Mergenbai zhyrau  gave two versions of the epos to the Manuscript Foundation of ILA. One of them is a version of Karshyga (consists of 4020 lines), singer Syrlibai khan's version, the second one-Shege's version, singer Tolegen's version. Although they have been recorded from the same singer, these two versions have their own plot features. There are many differences in the heroes and geographic names. Shege's and Karshiga's versions included into this volume have been  published for the first time.

    According to the main principles of this multi volume edition, volume fifty three of the series "Babalar Sozi"  has scientific supplements which include the data on published texts;  vocabulary of geographic names; data on historical and religious figures; data on narrators and collectors;  list of used literature; summary in Russian and English.

     

     

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